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Cutting down

The first approach is called 'top-down', because you start with a larger bit of something, such as metal, and cut it down to size. For example, computer engineers make tiny electronic components by drawing patterns onto metal and then cutting the shapes out with lasers and hot gas.

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A lithography machine uses the
A lithography machine uses the 'top-down' approach to make silicon chips.
Image: Leica

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