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Top-down

Engineers can use the 'top-down' approach to make components on the nano-scale. It's a good approach, because you can make millions of components quickly and at the same time.

But it's not a delicate process, and it will have to be improved to make things that are even smaller and maybe only a few atoms wide.



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The smallest components of a computer chip are on a nano-scale.
The smallest components of a computer chip are on a nano-scale.
Image: IBM

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