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Glossary

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A

  • anaesthetic syringe

    syringe used to administer anaesthetic particularly in dentistry

  • analgesia

    Pain-relieving drugs or medications.

  • anastomosis

    An opening created by surgical, traumatic or pathological means between two normally separate spaces or organs

  • anatomical figure

    Highly detailed models of the full human figure for artists, teachers and medical practitioners.

  • anatomical model

    A model that demonstrates the structure of the human body through the separation of its parts. Often used for teaching purposes.

  • anatomy

    A branch of medical science concerned with the structure of living organisms.

  • aneurysm

    A balloon-like swelling occurring in the wall of an artery.

  • animal experimentation

    Before researchers test drug treatments in human clinical trials, they normally test them on animals to determine if they are toxic, to find the correct dose and whether they are effective.

  • animal experiments

    The use of animals in scientific research. The process has become controversial in some countries, but is considered vital by many scientists. The British Royal Society claims that virtually every medical achievement of the twentieth century used animal testing. The British and American governments both support animal testing provided that it minimizes animal suffering.

  • anorexia nervosa

    A disease characterized by a person’s sustained refusal to eat without any identifiable digestive system disorder; it was first identified and named in 1873.

  • anthrax

    A disease found in humans and other animals. It can be transmitted to humans through contact with animal hide or excrement. In humans it attacks the lungs (causing pneumonia) or the skin (producing skin ulcers). It can be fatal, but is treatable by penicillin.

  • anthropology

    The social, cultural and geographical study of humans and humankind.

  • anthropometrical measure

    The practise of measuring different parts of the human body in the hope of using them to determine personal characteristics. The practise is no longer accepted as scientific.

  • anthropometry

    The measuring of body parts so that comparisons can be made. The aim is to measure normal and abnormal development. In the past, it has also been used in attempts to measure racial difference.

  • anthropomorphic

    From anthropomorphism, which projects human characteristics such as speech, emotion and reason on to animals or objects.

  • anti-bacterial

    A substance that destroys bacteria or slows their growth or reproduction.

  • antibiotic

    A substance that is used to treat infections.

  • antibody

    Molecules produced by the body which attach themselves to the micro-organisms that cause disease and destroy them.

  • antigen

    A substance that stimulates an immune response when introduced into the body.

  • anti-inflammatory

    A drug that reduces inflammation by working against the elements in the body that cause and maintain the inflammation.

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