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Glossary

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  • apprenticeship

    An agreement where a person learns a trade from a skilled worker over a fixed period of time.

  • apron

    Garments worn over main garments for protection and sometimes ornamentation. Usually cover the front of the body and tie at the waist with strings, but may have a bib or shoulder straps. There are specialist types such as those containing lead to give radiological protection.

  • aquatint

    prints produced where resin or other substance is applied to a plate to make a porous ground, and the plate is then heated and etched, producing a range of tonal value; often combined with line work

  • aquatints

    Prints produced by the aquatint process.

  • arithmometer

    An early mechanical calculator, invented around 1820, the first to be commercially sold and distributed.

  • arm

    The limb of the human body which extends from the shoulder to the hand

  • armband

    Bands encircling the arm, sometimes worn for identification or in mourning; also similar component parts of a sleeve.

  • armchair

    Term applied to a wide variety of chairs with arms, to distinguish them from side chairs which have no arms.

  • armillary sphere

    Skeleton models of the celestial sphere, generally having the earth at the center, consisting of a framework of rings depicting the relative position of such astronomical elements as the celestial equator, the ecliptic, the zodiac, and the planets. They were first developed by the ancient Greeks and used especially during the 14th through 16th centuries as an aid to navigation.

  • armrest

    A support for the arm.

  • arnica

    A flower that is a member of the Daisy family. It is found in areas of the Northern Hemisphere and was used to treat bruises.

  • artemisia

    A large group of plants. Many of the individual species have been used for medicinal purposes. Dried artemisia, known as moxa, is a key element in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Recently, artemisia-based drugs have been used to treat malaria.

  • artery

    A muscular tube carrying oxygenated blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.

  • artery forceps

    forceps are a two-bladed instrument with a handle for compressing or grasping tissues in surgical operations, and for handling sterile dressings, etc. Artery forceps are for specifically grasping and compressing an artery.

  • arthritis

    Inflammation of joints; swelling, pain and decreased mobility are typical symptoms.

  • article

    Literary compositions prepared for publication as an independent portion of a magazine, newspaper, encyclopedia, or other work.

  • articulated

    Something that has two or more sections linked by a flexible joint.

  • artificial acetabular cup

    prosthetic used to fit artifical femurs into the pelvis

  • artificial artery

    A complete or partial replacement of the arteries using materials such as Teflon, plastic or metal.

  • artificial eye

    A curved disk of opaque glass or plastic, containing an imitation iris and pupil in the centre, inserted beneath the eyelids and supported by the orbital contents after evisceration or enucleation; it may be ready-made (stock) or custom-made

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