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B

  • baby walker

    framework with wheels to assist babies in learning to walk (US origin)

  • baby weigher

    Set of scales or other type of balance (balance scales or spring type) used to assertain the weight of a baby or small infant

  • bacteria

    Micro-organisms which can cause disease but have an important role in global ecology.

  • bacterial culture

    A population of bacterial micro-organisms grown in a laboratory environment. Usually developed in liquid or solid state.

  • bacteriology

    The study of a group of single-celled organisms called bacteria.

  • badge

    Objects bearing special or distinctive marks, tokens, or devices signifying membership, allegiance, authority, or qualification; usually worn on the person.

  • badges

    Objects bearing special or distinctive marks, tokens, or devices signifying membership, allegiance, authority, or qualification; usually worn on the person.

  • baldness

    trial term S&H

  • ball joints

    Flexible mechanical joints that allow the axis of one part to be set at an angle to the other by virtue of the design of the two components. One possesses a fixed spherical shell to accommodate the ball-shaped end of the other. MEANS.

  • ballast fork

    A large, long handled fork with blunt ended tines, used for spreading ballast on railway track.

  • ballast plough brake van

    A goods brake van provided with plough ends for use in a Permanent Way Department train, to spread newly discharged ballast on the track.

  • ballast wagon

    A railway vehicle dedicated to the carriage of railway ballast.

  • ballistic galvanometer

    A moving-coil galvanometer designed for measuring charge by detecting a surge of current

  • balsam

    An aromatic substance which is secreted from certain plants. It is used in some botanical medicines.

  • banana van

    A heated or insulated goods vehicle for transporting bananas by rail.

  • bandage

    A strip of material such as gauze used to protect, immobilize, compress, or support a wound or injured body part

  • bank - container

    Small container often ornamental or mechanical for holding coins.

  • baptism

    A ceremony symbolising purification and marking entry into the Christian church.

  • barber surgeon

    Formerly a person referred to as a barber practiced some offices of surgery, such as letting blood and pulling teeth. Hence such terms as barber surgeon. A medical practitioner in medieval Europe who, unlike many physicians of the time performed surgery often on the war wounded.

  • barber-surgeon

    A medical practitioner in medieval Europe, who performed some types of surgery, such as bloodletting and pulling teeth. They often performed surgery on people wounded in war.

  • barbiturate

    A group of drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system. They were used as sedatives or tranquillisers but have been replaced in clinical use now as they were found to be addictive.

  • barge (ceremonial watercraft)

    Watercraft, usually highly decorated and propelled by oar or paddle, used for transporting important persons, either alive or dead, on state occasions or for ceremonial visits

  • barometer

    Instruments for measuring atmospheric pressure.

  • barrow

    A two-wheeled handcart.

  • bas-relief

    Another term for ‘low-relief’. It refers to a sculpture whose image has a shallow depth.

  • bathythermograph

    Oceanographic instrument that measures and records temperature at various depths in the ocean; often used by ships underway.

  • battery

    Collection of voltaic cells that convert chemical energy into direct current (DC) electricity

  • battery locomotive

    Self-propelled electric vehicle which obtains electrical energy from storage batteries carried on the vehicle.

  • bawley

    sailing and fishing vessel

  • BCG

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a weakened strain of the tuberculosis bacteria, which is used as a vaccination against TB(. Developed in 1908, it was first used on humans in 1921.

  • bead - pierced object

    Refers to small object, of any shape or material, pierced so that they may be strung or hung or attached, as by sewing.

  • beading (edging pattern)

    Enrichment consisting of a line of tiny beads; common on silver and furniture. LDDO.

  • beamscale

    Scales with a horizontal bar pivoting about a central fulcrum, creating equal-length arms; suspended from the ends of the arms are pans or baskets, in one of which is placed the item being weighed and in the other, a premeasured weight.

  • bed - furniture

    Generally, the sleeping places of humans and animals. Specifically, permanent pieces of furniture comprised of a bedstead, which is the wooden or metal support, and the bedding, including the mattress and cover.

  • bed cycle

    Invented by Dr Ludwig Guttman (1899-1980), a Jewish neurologist and surgeon, the bed cycle was used for exercise by paraplegics and tetraplegics

  • bed rest

    A support for a person in bed or confinement of a sick person to bed

  • bed warmer

    Device for warming beds. Usually metal, and containing embers from the fire.

  • bedpan

    Shallow containers made of metal, glass or plastic designed to be used for urination or defecation by people confined to bed.

  • bell - idiophone

    Percussion vessel consisting of a hollow object, usually of metal but in some cultures of hard clay, wood, or glass, which when struck emits a sound by the vibration of most of its mass; they are held in position at their vertex, the point farthest from their rim, and their zone of maximum vibration is towards the rim.

  • bell punch

    A device for validating thin card tickets on issue, usually with a numerical register. Normally associated with lightly used branch lines or halts.

  • belladonna

    Atropa Belladonna is a plant with bell-shaped flowers and black berries. The plant and flowers are poisonous. However, the roots and leaves are used in medical treatments and remedies.

  • benign

    signifies that treatment or removal (of a tumour) will lead to successful recovery

  • bib

    A piece of material worn by children to protect their clothes whilst eating.

  • bible

    Refers to book, scroll, roll, or other document form containing the sacred scriptures of Judaism or Christianity. Bibles may also contain illuminations, which are painted scenes or decorations. The Bible is composed of two parts: The Hebrew scriptures or Old Testament, written originally in Hebrew (with some parts in Aramaic) and including the writings of the Jewish people, and the New Testament, composed in Greek and recording the story of Jesus and the beginnings of Christianity. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox versions of the Old Testament are somewhat larger than the Protestant Bible because they accept certain books and parts of books considered apocryphal by Protestants. The Jewish Bible includes only the books known to Christians as the Old Testament. The arrangements of the Jewish and Christian canons differ considerably. Traditionally the Jews have divided their scriptures (the Old Testament) into three parts: The Torah (the "Law"), or Pentateuch; the Nevi'im (the "Prophets"); and the Ketuvim (the "Writings"), or Hagiographa. The stories, moral teachings, and theological doctrines in the bible have provided subjects for an immense body of visual art in both Christian and Jewish imagery. For Christians, a canon of biblical books was established in the Early Christian period; however, several apocryphal books continued to circulate long afterwards. Beginning in the late medieval period, poetic and dramatic interpretations of biblical narratives were very popular, providing ample extra-canonical literature that contributed to the development of important subjects in Christian art.

  • bidet

    Bathroom fixtures used for hygienic washing of the genitals and posterior parts.

  • bifocals

    A spectacle lens that is used for both long and short sight.

  • bile

    A yellow-greenish fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It plays an important role in the body’s absorption of fats.

  • bill-head

    A form of receipt that was common in business transactions from the late 1860s through to the early 1940s. Many bill-head receipts were decoratively illustrated. Most contained the company name and address, a unique invoice number, payment terms, products or services, the total and handwritten notes.

  • billhook

    Cutting tool consisting of a heavy blade with a hooked point fitted with a handle and used in pruning, clearning heavy brush, and maintaining hedges.

  • binaural stethoscope

    A device used to listen to the sounds produced by the human body. Ordinarily consists of rubber tubing in a Y shape. ‘Binaural’ indicates that it is used with both ears.

  • binder

    Use for a substance that produces or promotes cohesion among loosely assembled materials; also includes the substance in a photograph or photographic film that holds the final image material. For the combined material of photographic binder and image material, use "emulsion."

  • biochemistry

    The study of the chemistry of living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying their chemical substances.

  • bioengineering

    The development of artificial replacement limbs, organs and tissues. It also refers to the use of plants in controlling erosion and in landscape restoration.

  • biomedicine

    The name given to the medical practice that is based on the sciences of the body, such as physiology (the functioning of the body).

  • bionic

    Artficial body parts, usually electronic and mechanical.

  • biopsy

    The taking of a tissue sample for microscopic analysis, in order to make a precise diagnosis.

  • bioscope camera

    An early form of movie projector.

  • bistoury caché

    A long, narrow-bladed knife, with a straight or curved edge and sharp or blunt point (probe-point); used for opening or slitting cavities or hollow structures. Bistoury caché literally translates as hidden knife

  • bit

    horse's bit placed in between teeth to attach rein.

  • Black Death

    The widespread occurrence of death and disease that swept through Europe and Asia in the late 1300s, killing up to half the population in some areas. The most common cause of death was the bubonic plague, which was transmitted by bites from fleas carried by rats.

  • black-and-white print

    Photographic prints having images composed of a range of tones within one hue, plus the neutral tones.

  • black-and-white transparency

    Transparency having images composed of gray tones, black, and clear areas; may include one hue as a result of process, toning, or discoloration.

  • blackboard

    A board with a smooth usually dark surface for writing on with chalk

  • bladder

    A muscular sac that stores urine, ready for excretion.

  • blank forms

    Forms whose spaces provided for information have not been filled.

  • blanket support

    A framework of metal strips or other material that forms a cage over an injured part of the body of a patient lying in bed, to protect it from the pressure of the bedclothes.

  • blast pipe

    The exhaust steam pipe running from the valve chests into the smokebox box ending directly below the chimney.

  • blast pipe jimmy

    An illegal implement used by steam locomotive drivers, fitted across the blast pipe to increase combustion by splitting the blast and causing a greater draw on the smokebox gases.

  • bleeding bowl

    A shallow bowl four to six inches in diameter, with one flat handle which is usually flush with the rim. Used by barber-surgeons in the 1600s and 1700s when bleeding a patient.

  • blindness

    The inability to see light.

  • blistering

    The process in which the body forms blisters. When the top layer of skin is damaged a blister, a small sac of liquid, forms to protect the soft tissue underneath.

  • block bell

    An electrically powered system of audible communication between signal boxes.

  • blood (animal material)

    Fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of vertebrate animals. W.

  • blood clotting

    Where the blood changes within the body from a liquid to a solid state and produces a mass of clotted blood which can restrict blood flow.

  • blood donation

    The donation of blood for the purposes of transfusion or testing.

  • blood glucose meter

    A machine that tests the level of glucose in the blood. Blood is deposited on a special strip which is then inserted into the machine to give a reading.

  • blood letting

    To puncture a vein for the purpose of withdrawing blood. A tremendously popular medical practice for over 2000 years. Blood letting can involve withdrawing large quantities of blood in the belief that this would cure or prevent many illnesses and diseases. The practice has been abandoned for all except a few very specific conditions.

  • blood letting needle

    Needle used in Oriential Medicine for the process of blood letting

  • blood poisoning

    The damage caused from absorbing harmful bacteria and toxins from the bloodstream.

  • blood pressure

    The pressure at which blood is pumped around the body, closely related to the heart rate.

  • blood sample card

    used to collect blood samples for storage purposes

  • blood transfusion

    An injection of healthy, donated blood into a patient to raise his or her number of red blood cells. The blood is matched according to type (A, B, O, AB).

  • bloodletting

    Puncturing a vein in order to withdraw blood. A popular medical practice for over two thousand years. Bloodletting often involved withdrawing large quantities of blood in the belief that this would cure or prevent many illnesses and diseases. The practice has been abandoned for all but a few very specific conditions.

  • blotters

    Books in which entries of transactions or occurrences are made as they take place, usually pending their transfer to permanent record books; such as a police blotter or general merchandise store blotter. GAHLM.

  • BMI

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a way of working out if a person is over or under weight. It is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in metres. The resulting number is then divided by height in metres again. Currently it is suggested that a healthy BMI lies between 18.5 and 25.

  • boat

    Watercraft generally smaller and less seaworthy than ship and generally not designed to cross large open waters

  • body lice

    A small insect that attaches to the clothes and hair of humans. They thrive in unhygienic conditions and can transmit disease.

  • body panel

    A panel forming part of the internal or external skin of a railway carriage or wagon.

  • bogie

    A swivelling wheeled structure, to guide and support a locomotive or railway vehicle, usually 4 or 6 wheeled.

  • boiler stay gauge

    A gauge for checking the thread sizes in the locomotive boiler plate prior to inserting new boiler stays.

  • boiler wagon

    A special vehicle dedicated to the conveyance of industrial boilers.

  • bolster wagon

    An open freight vehicle fitted with one or more raised transverse beams (bolsters) on which the load is carried clear of the floor to facilitate loading and unloading. The bolsters are normally equipped with removable stanchions to control lateral movement of the load.

  • bone

    The very hard and dense connective tissues that join to form the skeleton. Made of collagen fibres and bone salts.

  • bone forceps

    forceps used to seize or remove fragments of bone

  • bone plate

    plates used to bridge fracture sites

  • bone reamer

    A rotating finishing or drilling tool used to shape or enlarge a hole.

  • bone saw

    Special type of surgical saw for cutting through bone

  • book

    Collections of wood or ivory tablets, or sheets of paper, parchment, or similar material, that are blank, written on, or printed, and are strung or bound together; commonly many folded and bound sheets containing continuous printing or writing; especially, when printed, a bound volume, or a volume of some size.

  • book cover

    Detachable, flexible coverings for books, usually of paper cut flush with the covers, folding around the binding with the ends tucked in between the cover boards and the free end paper. For attached outer sheets or boards, use "covers (gathered matter components)."

  • book of tickets

    Early railways adopted the stagecoach system of writing out tickets in a ledger or book. The ticket was torn from the ledger leaving a stub or counterfoil as an accounting record of the transaction.

  • booklet

    Small book consisting of a few sheets that are glued, stitched or stapled together between thin card or paper covers.

  • boot

    Footwear, the leg of which extends above the ankle joint.

  • bottle

    Vessels having a neck and mouth considerably narrower than the body, used for packaging and containing liquid and dry preparations

  • bottle jack

    A bottle-shaped hand operated screw jack used for general engineering work and for rerailing and supporting railway vehicles.

  • bottle openers

    Tools used for removing caps on bottles.

  • bottles

    Vessels having a neck and mouth considerably narrower than the body, used for packaging and containing liquid and dry preparations. MCKWBF.

  • botulism toxin

    a powerful nerve toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, that is injected, in minute dosage, for the treatment of various conditions of muscle dysfunction, such as dystonia (including blepharospasm and torticollis) and spastic paralysis associated with cerebral palsy. Trade names:. Botox,. Dysport.

  • boundary stone

    A stone marker indicating the limit of the extent of the property of a railway company.

  • bourdalou

    Boat shaped female urinal

  • bow

    Tools that consist of a bent elastic rod with ends connected by a string; used for various purposes, as for giving reciprocating motion to a drill.

  • bowl

    A round deep basin used for food or liquid

  • bowler hat

    Men's hard, round-crowned, felt hats with a narrow brim, slightly rolled in.

  • box camera

    Early type of camera consisting of a lightproof box, with lens, shutter, and viewfinder, and employing film rather than a plate.

  • boxes (containers)

    Rigid, often rectangular containers usually with a lid or cover in which something nonliquid is kept or carried. W.

  • bracelet

    An ornamental band, hoop, or chain worn round the wrist or arm.

  • brain

    The enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system. The average adult human brain weighs about 1400 g (approximately 2% of total body weight) and is continuous below with the spinal cord. It is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.)

  • brain death

    A state of irreversible coma, due to irreversible brain damage, resulting in a lack of response to all stimuli and a complete absence of any spontaneous muscle activity.

  • brain stem

    A small, but crucially important part of the brain. It is found at the connecting area between the brain and spinal cord. The brain stem controls many of the most basic body functions such as breathing, heart rate and consciousness.

  • brake

    The appliance fitted to vehicles to retard or prevent motion.

  • brake van

    The vehicle in a passenger of freight train containing accommodation for the guard and braking and emergency equipment for use by the guard.

  • branding iron

    Iron rods which terminate in a flat surface on which is a device or letter set in relief; used after heating to mark livestock, tools, or manufactured goods with indelible evidence of ownership.

  • brassard

    Cloth armbands, often with braiding or tassels, worn around the upper arm, as by military personnel to signify a particular group or regiment.

  • bread baskets

    Baskets or basketlike containers for bread or rolls. RHDEL2.

  • breakdown crane

    A railborne heavy lift crane used for clearing the track following derailments and similar accidents.

  • breast feeding

    The process of synthesising milk from the breasts, usually a child from its mother.

  • breast form

    A breast prosthesis is a silicone breast form that fits in a bra cup to replace a natural breast. It is most often used after a mastectomy or bi-lateral mastectomy, or a wide local excision.

  • breast pump

    Mechanical device to extract milk from the breasts of a lactating woman. They may be manual devices operated by hand or foot movement or electrically powered.

  • breast reliever

    Device to relieve pressure and soreness during breast feeding, originally made of glass later rubber or plastic is employed

  • breathalyser

    A device used for measuring the level of alcohol in the blood from the breath of a vehicle driver.

  • bromides

    A class of drugs used as sedatives (to cause sleep) in use from the 1850s until replaced in the 1950s and 1960s by other drugs.

  • bronchitis

    Inflammation of one or more bronchi (one of the larger air passages in the lungs), usually a result of infection. It is characterized by intense coughing.

  • bronchitis kettle

    Instrument used in the treatment of bronchitis.The kettle was filled with water then maybe a drug such as menthol (mint oil) was added. Using a small spirit lamp the kettle was heated. Steam came out of a long spout. The patient inhaled the steam which helped make eased the process of breathing.

  • bronchoscope

    an instrument used to look into the trachea (wind pipe) and bronchi.

  • brush

    Implements consisting of bristles, hair, or the like, set in or attached to a handle; used for painting, cleaning, polishing, or grooming.

  • bubby pot

    Forerunner of the modern feeding bottle, named after the old English word for breast. Made of pewter or ceranic the perforated spout of the pot was covered with cloth to act as a nipple when feeding an infant cows milk or similar.

  • bubo

    An inflammation of a lymphatic gland (armpit or groin) commonly found in syphilis or the plague.

  • bubonic plague

    Thought to have been the cause of the Black Death, the bubonic plague is caused by a bacterial infection of the lymphatic system, the network of capillary vessels in the human body. The plague is most commonly transmitted via the bites of fleas. Characteristic symptoms include enlarged lymph glands (buboes).

  • bucket - vessel

    Typically, round wooden vessels for drawing water from a well; also, any comparable vessel for catching, holding, or carrying liquids or solids.

  • Buddhism

    A belief system or religion originally from India and based on the teachings of Siddharta Guatama, known as ‘The Buddha’, who died about 400 BCE. It requires ethical and unselfish behaviour.

  • buffer

    A device using springs or hydraulics to absorb the shock when a railway vehicle runs into another vehicle or a buffer stop at the end of the line.

  • buffet car

    A vehicle from which refreshments are served.

  • bullet extraction

    The removal of a bullet from a human, animal or object.

  • bullet extractor

    An instrument resembling elongated forceps and used for extracting bullets from the human body.

  • bullion balance

    An high precision beamscale balance used to gold, silver and other valuable metals to a high degree of accuracy.

  • bumper sticker

    Sticker intended to be placed on the bumper of a motor vehicle, usually bearing messages such as slogans, witticisms, or advertisements.

  • Bunsen burner

    A piece of science equipment common in laboratories and used for heating, combustion and sterilization. It is fed with flammable gas and produces an open flame, which can be regulated by an air valve.

  • burette

    A marked glass tube, with a small tap and stopcock. It is used for delivering set quantities of a liquid or for measuring the amount of liquid or gas received or discharged.

  • burners

    That part of a lamp that supports and permits adjustment of the wick and is the seat of combustion that provides the light. RUSHL.

  • burning-glass sunshine recorder

    A form of sunshine recorder using a burning-glass to measure the duration of sunshine by area of the recording paper burn away.

  • burnisher

    Implements with a hard smooth rounded end or surface, used for smoothing and polishing. In printmaking, burnishers are used to smooth rough areas of an intaglio plate.

  • burns

    tissue damage caused by such agents as heat, cold, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet light, or nuclear radiation. A first-degree burn affects only the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin. In a second-degree burn both the epidermis and the underlying dermis are damaged. A third-degree burn involves damage or destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to the tissues beneath. Burns cause swelling and blistering, due to loss of plasma from damaged blood vessels.

  • bust

    Representations of only the head and shoulders of a human figure.

  • button

    Disks, balls, or devices of other shape having holes or a shank by which they are sewn or secured to an article and that are used as fasteners by passing through a buttonhole or loop or a trimming.

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