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  • baby walker

    framework with wheels to assist babies in learning to walk (US origin)

  • baby weigher

    Set of scales or other type of balance (balance scales or spring type) used to assertain the weight of a baby or small infant

  • bacteria

    Micro-organisms which can cause disease but have an important role in global ecology.

  • bacterial culture

    A population of bacterial micro-organisms grown in a laboratory environment. Usually developed in liquid or solid state.

  • bacteriology

    The study of a group of single-celled organisms called bacteria.

  • badge

    Objects bearing special or distinctive marks, tokens, or devices signifying membership, allegiance, authority, or qualification; usually worn on the person.

  • baldness

    trial term S&H

  • ballistic galvanometer

    A moving-coil galvanometer designed for measuring charge by detecting a surge of current

  • balsam

    An aromatic substance which is secreted from certain plants. It is used in some botanical medicines.

  • bandage

    A strip of material such as gauze used to protect, immobilize, compress, or support a wound or injured body part

  • baptism

    A ceremony symbolising purification and marking entry into the Christian church.

  • barber-surgeon

    A medical practitioner in medieval Europe, who performed some types of surgery, such as bloodletting and pulling teeth. They often performed surgery on people wounded in war.

  • barbiturate

    A group of drugs that reduce the activity of the central nervous system. They were used as sedatives or tranquillisers but have been replaced in clinical use now as they were found to be addictive.

  • bas-relief

    Another term for ‘low-relief’. It refers to a sculpture whose image has a shallow depth.

  • battery

    Collection of voltaic cells that convert chemical energy into direct current (DC) electricity

  • BCG

    Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a weakened strain of the tuberculosis bacteria, which is used as a vaccination against TB(. Developed in 1908, it was first used on humans in 1921.

  • beamscale

    Scales with a horizontal bar pivoting about a central fulcrum, creating equal-length arms; suspended from the ends of the arms are pans or baskets, in one of which is placed the item being weighed and in the other, a premeasured weight.

  • bed - furniture

    Generally, the sleeping places of humans and animals. Specifically, permanent pieces of furniture comprised of a bedstead, which is the wooden or metal support, and the bedding, including the mattress and cover.

  • bed cycle

    Invented by Dr Ludwig Guttman (1899-1980), a Jewish neurologist and surgeon, the bed cycle was used for exercise by paraplegics and tetraplegics

  • bed rest

    A support for a person in bed or confinement of a sick person to bed

  • bed warmer

    Device for warming beds. Usually metal, and containing embers from the fire.

  • bedpan

    Shallow containers made of metal, glass or plastic designed to be used for urination or defecation by people confined to bed.

  • bell - idiophone

    Percussion vessel consisting of a hollow object, usually of metal but in some cultures of hard clay, wood, or glass, which when struck emits a sound by the vibration of most of its mass; they are held in position at their vertex, the point farthest from their rim, and their zone of maximum vibration is towards the rim.

  • belladonna

    Atropa Belladonna is a plant with bell-shaped flowers and black berries. The plant and flowers are poisonous. However, the roots and leaves are used in medical treatments and remedies.

  • benign

    signifies that treatment or removal (of a tumour) will lead to successful recovery

  • bib

    A piece of material worn by children to protect their clothes whilst eating.

  • bifocals

    A spectacle lens that is used for both long and short sight.

  • bile

    A yellow-greenish fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It plays an important role in the body’s absorption of fats.

  • bill-head

    A form of receipt that was common in business transactions from the late 1860s through to the early 1940s. Many bill-head receipts were decoratively illustrated. Most contained the company name and address, a unique invoice number, payment terms, products or services, the total and handwritten notes.

  • binaural stethoscope

    A device used to listen to the sounds produced by the human body. Ordinarily consists of rubber tubing in a Y shape. ‘Binaural’ indicates that it is used with both ears.

  • biochemistry

    The study of the chemistry of living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying their chemical substances.

  • bioengineering

    The development of artificial replacement limbs, organs and tissues. It also refers to the use of plants in controlling erosion and in landscape restoration.

  • biomedicine

    The name given to the medical practice that is based on the sciences of the body, such as physiology (the functioning of the body).

  • bionic

    Artficial body parts, usually electronic and mechanical.

  • biopsy

    The taking of a tissue sample for microscopic analysis, in order to make a precise diagnosis.

  • bistoury caché

    A long, narrow-bladed knife, with a straight or curved edge and sharp or blunt point (probe-point); used for opening or slitting cavities or hollow structures. Bistoury caché literally translates as hidden knife

  • Black Death

    The widespread occurrence of death and disease that swept through Europe and Asia in the late 1300s, killing up to half the population in some areas. The most common cause of death was the bubonic plague, which was transmitted by bites from fleas carried by rats.

  • blackboard

    A board with a smooth usually dark surface for writing on with chalk

  • bladder

    A muscular sac that stores urine, ready for excretion.

  • blanket support

    A framework of metal strips or other material that forms a cage over an injured part of the body of a patient lying in bed, to protect it from the pressure of the bedclothes.

  • bleeding bowl

    A shallow bowl four to six inches in diameter, with one flat handle which is usually flush with the rim. Used by barber-surgeons in the 1600s and 1700s when bleeding a patient.

  • blindness

    The inability to see light.

  • blistering

    The process in which the body forms blisters. When the top layer of skin is damaged a blister, a small sac of liquid, forms to protect the soft tissue underneath.

  • blood (animal material)

    Fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of vertebrate animals. W.

  • blood clotting

    Where the blood changes within the body from a liquid to a solid state and produces a mass of clotted blood which can restrict blood flow.

  • blood donation

    The donation of blood for the purposes of transfusion or testing.

  • blood glucose meter

    A machine that tests the level of glucose in the blood. Blood is deposited on a special strip which is then inserted into the machine to give a reading.

  • blood letting needle

    Needle used in Oriential Medicine for the process of blood letting

  • blood poisoning

    The damage caused from absorbing harmful bacteria and toxins from the bloodstream.

  • blood pressure

    The pressure at which blood is pumped around the body, closely related to the heart rate.

  • blood sample card

    used to collect blood samples for storage purposes

  • blood transfusion

    An injection of healthy, donated blood into a patient to raise his or her number of red blood cells. The blood is matched according to type (A, B, O, AB).

  • bloodletting

    Puncturing a vein in order to withdraw blood. A popular medical practice for over two thousand years. Bloodletting often involved withdrawing large quantities of blood in the belief that this would cure or prevent many illnesses and diseases. The practice has been abandoned for all but a few very specific conditions.

  • BMI

    The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a way of working out if a person is over or under weight. It is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in metres. The resulting number is then divided by height in metres again. Currently it is suggested that a healthy BMI lies between 18.5 and 25.

  • body lice

    A small insect that attaches to the clothes and hair of humans. They thrive in unhygienic conditions and can transmit disease.

  • bone

    The very hard and dense connective tissues that join to form the skeleton. Made of collagen fibres and bone salts.

  • bone forceps

    forceps used to seize or remove fragments of bone

  • bone plate

    plates used to bridge fracture sites

  • bone reamer

    A rotating finishing or drilling tool used to shape or enlarge a hole.

  • bone saw

    Special type of surgical saw for cutting through bone

  • booklet

    Small book consisting of a few sheets that are glued, stitched or stapled together between thin card or paper covers.

  • boot

    Footwear, the leg of which extends above the ankle joint.

  • bottle

    Vessels having a neck and mouth considerably narrower than the body, used for packaging and containing liquid and dry preparations

  • botulism toxin

    a powerful nerve toxin, produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, that is injected, in minute dosage, for the treatment of various conditions of muscle dysfunction, such as dystonia (including blepharospasm and torticollis) and spastic paralysis associated with cerebral palsy. Trade names:. Botox,. Dysport.

  • bourdalou

    Boat shaped female urinal

  • bowl

    A round deep basin used for food or liquid

  • bracelet

    An ornamental band, hoop, or chain worn round the wrist or arm.

  • brain

    The enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system. The average adult human brain weighs about 1400 g (approximately 2% of total body weight) and is continuous below with the spinal cord. It is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.)

  • brain death

    A state of irreversible coma, due to irreversible brain damage, resulting in a lack of response to all stimuli and a complete absence of any spontaneous muscle activity.

  • brain stem

    A small, but crucially important part of the brain. It is found at the connecting area between the brain and spinal cord. The brain stem controls many of the most basic body functions such as breathing, heart rate and consciousness.

  • branding iron

    Iron rods which terminate in a flat surface on which is a device or letter set in relief; used after heating to mark livestock, tools, or manufactured goods with indelible evidence of ownership.

  • breast feeding

    The process of synthesising milk from the breasts, usually a child from its mother.

  • breast form

    A breast prosthesis is a silicone breast form that fits in a bra cup to replace a natural breast. It is most often used after a mastectomy or bi-lateral mastectomy, or a wide local excision.

  • breast pump

    Mechanical device to extract milk from the breasts of a lactating woman. They may be manual devices operated by hand or foot movement or electrically powered.

  • breast reliever

    Device to relieve pressure and soreness during breast feeding, originally made of glass later rubber or plastic is employed

  • breathalyser

    A device used for measuring the level of alcohol in the blood from the breath of a vehicle driver.

  • bromides

    A class of drugs used as sedatives (to cause sleep) in use from the 1850s until replaced in the 1950s and 1960s by other drugs.

  • bronchitis

    Inflammation of one or more bronchi (one of the larger air passages in the lungs), usually a result of infection. It is characterized by intense coughing.

  • bronchitis kettle

    Instrument used in the treatment of bronchitis.The kettle was filled with water then maybe a drug such as menthol (mint oil) was added. Using a small spirit lamp the kettle was heated. Steam came out of a long spout. The patient inhaled the steam which helped make eased the process of breathing.

  • bronchoscope

    an instrument used to look into the trachea (wind pipe) and bronchi.

  • brush

    Implements consisting of bristles, hair, or the like, set in or attached to a handle; used for painting, cleaning, polishing, or grooming.

  • bubby pot

    Forerunner of the modern feeding bottle, named after the old English word for breast. Made of pewter or ceranic the perforated spout of the pot was covered with cloth to act as a nipple when feeding an infant cows milk or similar.

  • bubo

    An inflammation of a lymphatic gland (armpit or groin) commonly found in syphilis or the plague.

  • bubonic plague

    Thought to have been the cause of the Black Death, the bubonic plague is caused by a bacterial infection of the lymphatic system, the network of capillary vessels in the human body. The plague is most commonly transmitted via the bites of fleas. Characteristic symptoms include enlarged lymph glands (buboes).

  • bucket - vessel

    Typically, round wooden vessels for drawing water from a well; also, any comparable vessel for catching, holding, or carrying liquids or solids.

  • Buddhism

    A belief system or religion originally from India and based on the teachings of Siddharta Guatama, known as ‘The Buddha’, who died about 400 BCE. It requires ethical and unselfish behaviour.

  • bullet extraction

    The removal of a bullet from a human, animal or object.

  • bullet extractor

    An instrument resembling elongated forceps and used for extracting bullets from the human body.

  • Bunsen burner

    A piece of science equipment common in laboratories and used for heating, combustion and sterilization. It is fed with flammable gas and produces an open flame, which can be regulated by an air valve.

  • burette

    A marked glass tube, with a small tap and stopcock. It is used for delivering set quantities of a liquid or for measuring the amount of liquid or gas received or discharged.

  • burns

    tissue damage caused by such agents as heat, cold, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet light, or nuclear radiation. A first-degree burn affects only the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin. In a second-degree burn both the epidermis and the underlying dermis are damaged. A third-degree burn involves damage or destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to the tissues beneath. Burns cause swelling and blistering, due to loss of plasma from damaged blood vessels.

  • bust

    Representations of only the head and shoulders of a human figure.

  • button

    Disks, balls, or devices of other shape having holes or a shank by which they are sewn or secured to an article and that are used as fasteners by passing through a buttonhole or loop or a trimming.

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