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B

  • belladonna

    Atropa Belladonna is a plant with bell-shaped flowers and black berries. The plant and flowers are poisonous. However, the roots and leaves are used in medical treatments and remedies.

  • benign

    signifies that treatment or removal (of a tumour) will lead to successful recovery

  • bib

    A piece of material worn by children to protect their clothes whilst eating.

  • bible

    Refers to book, scroll, roll, or other document form containing the sacred scriptures of Judaism or Christianity. Bibles may also contain illuminations, which are painted scenes or decorations. The Bible is composed of two parts: The Hebrew scriptures or Old Testament, written originally in Hebrew (with some parts in Aramaic) and including the writings of the Jewish people, and the New Testament, composed in Greek and recording the story of Jesus and the beginnings of Christianity. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox versions of the Old Testament are somewhat larger than the Protestant Bible because they accept certain books and parts of books considered apocryphal by Protestants. The Jewish Bible includes only the books known to Christians as the Old Testament. The arrangements of the Jewish and Christian canons differ considerably. Traditionally the Jews have divided their scriptures (the Old Testament) into three parts: The Torah (the "Law"), or Pentateuch; the Nevi'im (the "Prophets"); and the Ketuvim (the "Writings"), or Hagiographa. The stories, moral teachings, and theological doctrines in the bible have provided subjects for an immense body of visual art in both Christian and Jewish imagery. For Christians, a canon of biblical books was established in the Early Christian period; however, several apocryphal books continued to circulate long afterwards. Beginning in the late medieval period, poetic and dramatic interpretations of biblical narratives were very popular, providing ample extra-canonical literature that contributed to the development of important subjects in Christian art.

  • bidet

    Bathroom fixtures used for hygienic washing of the genitals and posterior parts.

  • bifocals

    A spectacle lens that is used for both long and short sight.

  • bile

    A yellow-greenish fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It plays an important role in the body’s absorption of fats.

  • bill-head

    A form of receipt that was common in business transactions from the late 1860s through to the early 1940s. Many bill-head receipts were decoratively illustrated. Most contained the company name and address, a unique invoice number, payment terms, products or services, the total and handwritten notes.

  • billhook

    Cutting tool consisting of a heavy blade with a hooked point fitted with a handle and used in pruning, clearning heavy brush, and maintaining hedges.

  • binaural stethoscope

    A device used to listen to the sounds produced by the human body. Ordinarily consists of rubber tubing in a Y shape. ‘Binaural’ indicates that it is used with both ears.

  • binder

    Use for a substance that produces or promotes cohesion among loosely assembled materials; also includes the substance in a photograph or photographic film that holds the final image material. For the combined material of photographic binder and image material, use "emulsion."

  • biochemistry

    The study of the chemistry of living organisms and the reactions and methods for identifying their chemical substances.

  • bioengineering

    The development of artificial replacement limbs, organs and tissues. It also refers to the use of plants in controlling erosion and in landscape restoration.

  • biomedicine

    The name given to the medical practice that is based on the sciences of the body, such as physiology (the functioning of the body).

  • bionic

    Artficial body parts, usually electronic and mechanical.

  • biopsy

    The taking of a tissue sample for microscopic analysis, in order to make a precise diagnosis.

  • bioscope camera

    An early form of movie projector.

  • bistoury caché

    A long, narrow-bladed knife, with a straight or curved edge and sharp or blunt point (probe-point); used for opening or slitting cavities or hollow structures. Bistoury caché literally translates as hidden knife

  • bit

    horse's bit placed in between teeth to attach rein.

  • Black Death

    The widespread occurrence of death and disease that swept through Europe and Asia in the late 1300s, killing up to half the population in some areas. The most common cause of death was the bubonic plague, which was transmitted by bites from fleas carried by rats.

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