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C

  • cabinet card

    Card photographs, generally portraits, that were introduced by F. R. Window in 1867 as larger alternatives to the cartes-de-visite, which measured 3 1/4 x 2 1/4 inches. The larger size combination of card mount and photograph, measuring around 4 1/4 by 6 1/2 inches, was considered more appropriate for display, allowed for group portraits, and permitted the image to be retouched. The size remained popular until World War I.

  • cabinet chair

    A piece of furniture that conceals a chamber pot. Used as a toilet.

  • cable - object genre

    Strong, thick rope made with strands of iron wire (historically) or fibre optic (for telecommunications). Distinguished from 'rope', which is usually made from synthetic or organic fibres

  • cadaver

    A dead body, usually one being used in medical research.

  • caduceus

    A representation of a staff with two entwined snakes and two wings on the top. The caduceus is sometimes used as a symbol for medicine, especially in North America.

  • caesarean section

    A surgical procedure where a baby is delivered by cutting through the abdominal wall. They are increasingly performed if the baby is at risk or displaying signs of stress.

  • Caesarian section

    A caesarean section is a common surgical procedure. Incisions are made through a pregnant woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby.

  • caffeine

    A mild stimulant that is found in tea and coffee. It is often included, in small doses, in pain relief preparations, and is claimed to increase its effects.

  • calculator

    Small electronic or mechanical device that performs calculations, requiring manual action for each individual operation.

  • calendar

    A physical device used to organise days.

  • calf barrow

    A two-wheeled handcart designed specifically for transporting calves.

  • calipers

    Instruments consisting usually of a pair of adjustable pivoted legs and used for measuring, for example, thickness or diameters.

  • calliper

    Instruments consisting usually of a pair of adjustable pivoted legs and used for measuring, for example, thickness or diameters.

  • calomel

    A white powder that is an example of a mercury compound. It was formerly swallowed and used as a laxative.

  • calorimeter

    Instrument for measuring heat quantities, such as the heat of combustion, specific heat, or vital heat in such processes as chemical reactions or changes of state.

  • calotype process

    Negatives on paper made by Talbot's patented calotype process, a developing-out process. Distinguished from Talbot's "photogenic drawings," in which the image was printed out. For most prints made from these negatives, use "salted paper prints." In the mid-20th century, sometimes used incorrectly for any other paper negatives or salted paper prints.

  • camera

    An apparatus for taking photographs, generally consisting of a lightproof enclosure having an aperture with a shuttered lens through which the image of an object is focused and recorded on a photosensitive film or plate. Use more specific term where possible.

  • camera body

    Component part of camera usually including the film plane, film holder and shutter mechanism although the last two and the lens can be separate. Term most often applies to the Single Lens Reflect cameras but is relevant to other types encounted

  • camera obscura - optical drawing aid

    Optical device used as an artist drawing aid that projects an image of a scene into a darkened room or on to a glass screen on the top of a box. Its simplest form, the pin-hole camera does not have a lens.

  • camphor

    An aromatic substance obtained from the wood of a southeast Asian tree (Cinnamomum camphora) or produced artificially. When applied to the skin it produces a cooling effect. Camphor can be used to relieve the pain of sprains, backache, rheumatism, and headaches.

  • cancer

    Any cancerous tumour. It arises from the abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells which then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Cancer cells spread and can form secondary tumours some distance from the original.

  • candle lamp

    Lamp using candle as the source of illumination and containing the candle within a vessel. For devices that hold a candle or candles from their base use "candleholder."

  • candleholder

    Term generally applied to a variety of devices having either a single spike or one or more candle sockets to hold candles; sometimes having drips to catch wax, push-ups and other devices for removing the stub, or adjustable features for controlling the position of the flame. For lamps using candles as the source of illumination and containing the candle within a vessel, use "candle lamps."

  • candlestick

    Candleholders with a single candle socket mounted on a support with a widened base or foot for balance; often the support is columnar in form. For candleholders with a single candle socket set on a flat saucer or traylike base, use "chambersticks."

  • canister

    A box or container

  • cannula

    A tube for insertion into a duct or cavity in order to drain off fluid or give medication.

  • canoe

    Lightly built, slender, open craft of shallow draft that are paddled and not rowed and normally double-ended; may have sails.

  • canopic jar

    Stone or ceramic jars in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of a deceased person as part of their burial practices.

  • cant table

    Used to calcualte leanings at different speeds.

  • cap

    Brimless head coverings, usually made with a visor

  • cap - headgear

    Brimless head covering, usually made with a visor.

  • capillary electrometer

    An instrument used to measure very small amounts of voltage.

  • capillary tube

    A glass tube with a very small internal diameter.

  • carafe

    Bottles for serving wine or water at the table.

  • carbolic acid

    A strong disinfectant used for cleansing wounds. It is rarely used today, although it can still be found in mouthwash.

  • carbolic spray

    A disinfectant spray using carbolic acid that was used by Joseph Lister around 1870. Sprayed around the surgical theatre, it could prevent the spread of germs.

  • carbon print

    Photographic print made by the carbon process, which uses carbon pigment and geletin to transfer images to a paper support. A carbon print shows a very slight relief and rarely exhibit signs of aging or image deterioration. During the last quarter of the 19th century they were widely used for book illustrations and the commercial reproduction of conventionally made photographs and prints.

  • card

    The term card primarily refers to cardboard or a piece of cardboard. More generally, the term can refer to any of various small flat objects, typically made from heavy paper or plastic.

  • card game - game set

    Set composed of playing card plus other items designed to be used together in games in which the primary activity during a round of play involves the use of the playing cards.

  • card games

    Sets composed of playing cards plus other items designed to be used together in games in which the primary activity during a round of play involves the use of the playing cards.

  • card holder

    Devices or contrivances by which, or containers in which, something is held i.e. a card.

  • cardiac catheter

    A catheter that can be passed into the heart through a vein or artery, to withdraw samples of blood, measure pressures within the heart's chambers or great vessels, and inject contrast media

  • cardiac pacemaker

    Refers to the cells which emit impulses that control the contractions of the heart, regulating its beat. Can also refer to devices used to create these impulses artificially, if the heart’s ability to do so has been damaged.

  • cardiology

    The study of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels.

  • cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

    An emergency procedure, usually applied to those who have suffered a heart attack or some form of respiratory failure. It involves physical treatments intended to artificially create circulation. This is usually attempted through rhythmic pressing on the chest to manually pump blood through the heart and the ‘kiss of life’. The kiss of life exhales air into the patient to inflate the lungs and bring oxygen into the blood.

  • cardiospasm dilator

    A cardiospasm dilator treats cardiospasm or oesophageal achalasia. This is constriction of the lower portion of the food pipe (oesophagus) due to inability of the muscles to relax. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting and heartburn. Treatment includes oesophageal dilation using special instruments or medication.

  • cargo vessel

    Watercraft designed primarily to transport cargo

  • caricature

    A representation that exaggerates certain features or characteristics to humorous effect.

  • carpenter's rule

    Rule containing graduations and various data conversion tables for making measurements and calculations of use to carpenters; since about 1800 most commonly 2-foot, two-fold or four-fold rules.

  • carriage key

    A universal key used for locking and unlocking doors of railway carriages.

  • carriage print

    Prints displayed in railway carriage, usually framed and displayed in carriage compartments. Often commissioned by railway and then reproduced.

  • cart

    Two-wheeled, animal-drawn vehicle, primarily built for utility purpose, although some varieties were designed as sporting vehicles or for personal transportation.

  • carte-de-visite

    Refers to small-format photographs affixed to card stock, particularly the card photographs patented by the Parisian photographer André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri in 1854 and similar items produced by Mathew B. Brady and other photographers. They went out of fashion in the 1870s. The photographs were typically portraits and the image was a standard size of 3 1/4 x 2 1/4 inches; they were generally produced by a multiple-lens camera that created several images on a single full-sized negative plate. Full-size prints from the plate were cut into sections measuring 4 x 2 1/2 inches, and the pieces were often mounted on cards, which initially served as visitors' cards; it later became the custom to exchange them on birthdays and holidays, and to collect cartes-de-visite of friends, family members, and celebrities in albums.

  • carton

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • cartons

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • Carver chair

    Collector's term for 17th-century American turned great chairs styled after one that belonged to John Carver, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Such chairs have boldly turned posts and decorative spindles, but unlike Brewster chairs they have spindles only in the back and below the arms, and not below the seat.

  • case

    A receptacle, holder, box, chest, bag, sheath, or covering fitted to contain or enclose something else; typically used for transporting or protecting the enclosed item or items. For cases designed to hold cameras use camera case.

  • case - container

    A receptacle, holder, box, chest, bag, sheath, or covering fitted to contain or enclose something else; typically used for transporting or protecting the enclosed item or items.

  • cash bag

    A bag of leather, cloth, paper or plastic used for transporting cash.

  • cash box

    A box for holding cash.

  • cast

    Use for sculptural works or reproductions made by casting. In industrial and building trade contexts, prefer "castings."

  • castor oil

    A pale yellow vegetable oil used in medicine as a laxative. Castor oil is also used in some parts of the world for burning in lamps.

  • catalogue

    Enumerations of items, usually arranged systematically, with descriptive details; may be in book or pamphlet form, on cards

  • cataract

    Cloudiness on the lens of the eye impairing vision or causing blindness.

  • catgut

    A material prepared from animal tissue (usually sheep intestinal wall). It was twisted to different thicknesses and used to sew wounds and tie blood vessels. The material slowly dissolves and so the stitches do not require removal.

  • catheter

    A flexible tube, narrow enough to be inserted into the body, where it is used for withdrawing fluids. Most typically used for extracting urine from the bladder.

  • cattle van

    A special railway wagon for the transportation of livestock.

  • cattle wagon

    A railway vehicle used for transporting cattle, the top half of which was fitted with bars rather than boarding to allow the cattle to breathe.

  • cauterise

    Using a hot iron to seal a wound to stop bleeding.

  • cautery

    To destroy tissue through contact with a hot implement. To remove warts, etc, or to stop small cuts bleeding.

  • cavalry sketching-board

    A military sketching-board permitting sketches to be made on horseback

  • celestial globe

    Refers to globes that depict the celestial sphere, which is a representation of the heavens in which the stars, constellations, and planets are depicted as if the sky visible from Earth were a ball. They were used for astronomical or astrological calculations or as ornaments. They have been known since the time of the ancient Greeks. The globes are intended to depict the heavens, generally the night sky, that to an observer on Earth appears as a hemisphere resting on the horizon. The eastward rotation of the Earth on its axis produces an apparent diurnal westward rotation of the starry sphere, and the stars seem to rotate around a northern or southern celestial pole. For representations of the celestial sphere projected onto a flat plane, use "planispheres."

  • cell

    Basic unit of all living organisms, it can reproduce itself exactly.

  • census

    An official (normally governmental) count of population.

  • central nervous system

    Consisting of the brain and spinal cord, it controls the activity of the body through nerve tissues.

  • cerebellum

    The cerebellum is traditionally recognised as the area of the brain that regulates muscle tone and coordination of movement. There is also evidence it contributes to non-motor functions such as thought processes and emotions.

  • ceremonial staff

    Weapon in the form of a single, long shaft, like a quarterstaff, that serve ceremonial or ritual function, for instance as symbols of office or public regalia. For weapons consisting of a long staff of wood, often tipped with iron at both ends, use "quarterstaff."

  • ceremonial sword

    Sword that plays a part in public state or civic ceremonies or rituals, being variously worn, carried, or presented, as symbols of honor or power.

  • certificate

    Documents giving authoritative recognition of a fact, qualification, or promise

  • certificates

    Documents giving authoritative recognition of a fact, qualification, or promise.

  • cervical cap

    A barrier form of contraception. It consists of a thimble-shaped device which fits tightly over the entrance of the cervix. It blocks sperm from entering the uterus and thereby prevents fertilisation. Popular since the mid-1800s, their use has dropped dramatically in recent years.

  • cervix

    Neck of the uterus, projecting downwards into the vagina.

  • chaldron wagon

    An early two-axle hopper type coal wagon.

  • chamber pot

    Bowl-shaped container with a handle, used as a urinal at night. Chamber pots remained in common use until the 1900s when inside water closets replaced them. They are still used in countries where indoor plumbing is rare.

  • character doll

    Doll made in the likeness of specific real people or human or humanoid fictional character; use "character toy" for the broader category that includes these plus animal figures.

  • character toy

    Figural toy made in the likeness of specific real person or animal or human, humanoid, or animal fictional character; use "character doll" for the narrower category of figurines representing only specific real people or human or humanoid fictional characters.

  • charity

    The noble act of voluntarily giving goods, money or time to those in need.

  • charm

    An object kept or worn in a belief that it has magical powers to protect against harm or to bring good luck.

  • charm - spell

    Written text of words said or chanted for magical effect. Used at magical ceremonies or arts; magic, sorcery, enchantment.

  • chart - graphic document

    A tabular or graphic representation of a fluctuating or dependent variable, such as magnitude, temperature, cost, etc.

  • chassis

    A complete frame and wheel assembly.

  • chastity belt

    A garment which prevents the wearer from having sex.

  • chemical demonstration equipment

    Equipment used to teach and demonstrate concepts and processes in the discipline of chemistry

  • chemical pathology

    The branch of pathology that deals with the basis of diseases and measures substances in body fluids in order to aid diagnoses and treatment.

  • chemistry

    The branch of science that studies substances which constitute matter with the aim of discovering their properties, how they react, and the uses and products of such reactions.

  • chemistry set

    A set of scientific apparatus which allows the user to perform simple scientific experiments.

  • cheque

    Written orders drawn on a bank to pay on demand a specified sum of money to a named person, to his order, or to bearer, out of money on deposit to the credit of the writer; must be endorsed to be transferred.

  • chest protector

    A garment designed to protect the chest from injury. These are commonly worn when participating in hard contact sports or any other activity that carries a risk of injury.

  • chicken pox

    A common, highly infectious and contagious childhood virus that results in an itchy red rash.

  • chilblains

    A red itchy swelling that is caused when the skin is exposed to cold weather.

  • childcare

    The caring for or supervising of a child or children.

  • chimney pot

    Metal, masonry, or ceramic extensions which continue the flue on top of chimneys to improve draft or appearance; for extensions that protect chimney openings and may serve to block rain, use "chimney hoods."

  • chisel

    Metal hand tool with a cutting edge at one end, usually driven by a hammer or mallet; used in dressing, shaping, or working wood, stone, or metal.

  • chlorobromide print

    Chloro-bromide prints share the features of silver gelatin prints; deep rich blacks and crisp whites on a high gloss paper with good archival properties. The tone is warm brown-black.

  • chloroform

    A liquid formerly used as a general anaesthetic although no longer used for this purpose as it causes liver damage and affects the heart rate. It is now used in low concentration to treat flatulence.

  • chloroform dropper bottle

    bottle used to hold chloroform and administer a small dose

  • chloroform mask

    mask used to administer chloroform, usually made from cloth

  • choler

    Another word for yellow bile, one of the four humours - the fluids of the body whose balance was believed to be essential to well-being.

  • cholera

    A severe infection of the small intestine commonly contracted through eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Causes severe vomiting and diarrhoea, leading to dehydration, which can be fatal.

  • chromatogram

    a record from chromotography - a technique for separating molecules based on differential absorption

  • chromatography

    A method of separating the different components of a chemical mixture. This allows a person to identify what components were in the mixture

  • chromatrope

    An instrument for exhibiting certain chromatic effects of light (depending upon the persistence of vision and mixture of colors) by means of rapidly rotating disks variously colored. Also used in a magic lantern or stereopticon to produce kaleidoscopic effects

  • chromosomes

    The basic elements of DNA - carriers of genetic information.

  • chronograph - timer

    Timepieces used to register the time of an event or graphically register specific time intervals, such as for the duration of events.

  • chronometer

    An accurate timepiece.

  • chronoscope

    Electronic device for measuring extremely short intervals of time with great accuracy, such as for determining the velocity of projectiles.

  • churchwarden pipe

    tobacco pipes with long stems, measuring up to and over 40 cm

  • cigar boxes

    Use for containers intended primarily for holding cigars, especially covered boxes of varying shape, similar to but larger than cigarette boxes, meant to be placed on a table, desk, or the like. For flat containers used to carry cigars, use "cigar cases." For airtight containers for cigars, use "humidors."

  • cigar cutter

    Device with a hole over which a sharp, thin blade moves to cut the top of a cigar.

  • cigarette card

    Cards containing pictures of birds, baseball players, celebrities, or other popular culture subjects packaged by manufacturers of cigarettes with their product during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • cinchona

    The dried bark of any of the Cinchona trees. Used to stimulate the appetite, prevent bleeding and, in the past, to treat malaria.

  • cinchonine

    One of the compounds derived from the bark of various species of cinchona trees, used in several medical practices including anti-malarial treatments.

  • cine camera

    A camera that takes a sequence of photographs that can give the illusion of motion when viewed in rapid succession

  • cine camera projector

    An opto-mechanical device for displaying moving pictures by projecting them on a projection screen.

  • circular

    Letters intended for circulation, either widely or throughout a particular group

  • circular dividing engine

    A machine for accurately dividing the circular scales of surveying, astronomical or other instruments, such as sextants and octants.

  • circulars

    Use for printed pieces such as notices or advertisements, usually in the form of single sheets or leaflets, intended for wide distribution to the general public. For similar pieces intended for distribution by hand and often doubling as posters, use "handbills."

  • circulation

    The system of movement of the blood through the heart and blood vessels around the body.

  • circumcision

    Surgical removal of the foreskin around the penis. Usually for religious or ethical reasons, but may also be done for medical reasons.

  • circumcision knife

    A knife used to perform circumcision.

  • circumferentor

    Circumferentor, or surveyor's compass, is an instrument with a magnetic compass with sights used in surveying to measure horizontal angles against the magnetic meridian (magnetic north-south line). Not to be confused with early instruments with pivoted alidades that would have been referred to as theodolites.

  • clamp

    An instrument for compression of a structure

  • Claude glass - optical drawing aid

    Device consisting of a black glass mirror of convex form in a carrying case. Used by landscape artists who observed their scene through the mirror, which would provide a picturesque aesthetic of a subtle gradation of tones. It is named after the artist Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) who is synonymous with this artistic movement.

  • cleft lip

    A condition occurring in the womb where the palate and lip do not fuse completely.

  • clergy stole

    a priest's silk vestment worn over the shoulders and hanging down to the knee or below.

  • climber for climbing telegraph poles

    A device with metal spikes, strapped to the leg and used to grip into wood for climbing telegraph poles.

  • clinical chemistry

    The study of health, disease and drugs at a chemical, molecular and cellular model.

  • clinical diagnosis

    A diagnosis given based on the signs and symptoms of a disease.

  • clinometer

    Any instrument for measuring angles of inclination by reference to a plumb line, spirit level or other means to obtain a true horizontal or vertical line.

  • clitoridectomy knife

    Knife used for the removal of the clitoris (clitoridectomy), more often a therapeutic rather than medical procedure.

  • cloak

    Sleeveless outer garment which fastens at the neck and falls loosely from the shoulders to cover the entire body; may have a yoke or some shaping from the neck to the shoulders.

  • clock case

    trial term

  • cloning

    A process where cells are produced asexually (neither male, nor female) and are genetically identical to the parent cell from which they are produced.

  • cloth

    Use generally for textile that is woven, felted, knit, pounded, or otherwise made into a flat piece

  • clothes brush

    Brushes used to remove loose hair, dirt, or dust off the surface of costume.

  • clothes peg

    used to grip laundry on a washing line

  • clotting factors

    Chemicals in the blood which interact to make the blood clot.

  • club foot

    A condition where the foot is twisted and so the sole cannot be placed flat on the floor.

  • coach body

    The basic body section of a vehicle without internal fittings.

  • coal bucket

    a deep, round container with a flat bottom and a curved handle, used to hold or carry coal

  • coal hammer

    A blunt edged hammer used for breaking up large lumps of coal in to pieces suitable for firing a steam locomotive.

  • coal wagon

    A freight vehicle dedicated to the conveyance of coal.

  • coat - garment

    Main garment usually fitted to the upper body, extending below the hip line, open at the front or side and generally having sleeves. Also, similar outer garment worn for warmth or protection from the weather.

  • coats of arms

    Use for devices that include the full display of armorial bearings: the escutcheon plus its adjuncts (helm, crest, mantling, motto, supporters).

  • cocaine

    White, crystalline powder extracted from the leaves of the coca plant. Once used as a local anaesthetic, it is now an illegal drug. It is habit-forming and harmful to the body.

  • cochlear implant

    A device surgically implanted in the cochlea which translates sound into electrical impulses conveyed to the auditory nerve to facilitate hearing.

  • coconut

    Fruit of the tropical palm coco nucifera (coco-palm)

  • cocoon

    Case or wrapping produced by larval forms of animals (such as some moths, butterflies, and wasps) for protection during the pupal stage in their life cycle. Most cocoons are made of silk.

  • coeliac disease

    A digestive intolerance of the small intestine to foods that contain gluten.

  • coffee cup

    A type of cup from which coffee is drunk. Coffee cups are typically made of glazed ceramic, and have a single handle, allowing for portability while still hot.

  • coffee makers

    Any of various utensils in which coffee is infused, brewed, percolated, or boiled.

  • coffee spoon

    Small spoons, similar in size to chocolate spoons, used to stir coffee served in demitasses; often ornamental and sold in sets.

  • coffee-pot

    Covered spouted vessel for preparing and serving coffee. The term is often reserved for a decorative vessel made of ceramic, silver, or another material and used to transport and serve the coffee at table after it has been prepared in another vessel. Coffee pots typically have a handle and sometimes small feet.

  • coffin

    Box or chest for a corpse to be buried in.

  • cog (watercraft)

    Bottom-based merchant ship of the 13th to the 15th century, clinker-built with rounded bow and stern, fore and after castles, and very broad in the beam; occasionaly used as warships.

  • cognitive behavioural therapy

    Type of therapy using analysis of behaviour and thought patterns. The patient is encouraged to analyse his or her specific ways of thinking around a problem. The therapist then looks at the resulting behaviour and the consequences of that thinking and tries to encourage the patient to change his or her cognition in order to avoid adverse behaviour or its consequences.

  • coin beamscale

    Money scales employing a beamscale and coin weight, usually in a separate case, for checking the value of gold and silver coins.

  • coins

    Pieces of metal stamped by government authority for use as money.

  • coitus interruptus

    A method of contraception in which the penis is withdrawn from the vagina prior to ejaculation. Also known as the withdrawal method.

  • cold chisel

    Common form of chisel with a cutting edge of 60 degrees formed of tempered steel; used for cutting metal which has not been softened by heating.

  • colic

    Severe abdominal pain caused by obstruction of the intestine or by constipation.

  • collotype (image)

    Photomechanical prints produced by the process called collotype.

  • cologne

    Scented water, similar to perfume.

  • colorimeter

    Instrument for the analysis, synthesis, matching, and measurement of colour; it compares a given colour to a standard colour from a scale of colours, combinations of primary colours.

  • colour blindness test

    A test to find whether a person is colour blind. The most commonly used test in the world is the Ishihara test invented in 1917, where numbers are concealed within a circle of different colours.

  • colour print

    Photographic prints having images composed of gray tones, black, and white; may include one hue as a result of process, toning, discoloration, or the use of a colored support.

  • colour transparency

    Transparencies having images composed of more than one hue, plus the neutral tones. For transparencies having a range of tones within one hue, see "black-and-white transparencies."

  • comb - grooming tool

    Tool with a row of teeth on one or both edges or sides that are used for adjusting, distangling, or cleaning the hair.

  • combs (grooming tools)

    Tools with a row of teeth on one or both edges or sides that are used for adjusting, distangling, or cleaning the hair.

  • comedy

    a play, film, etc., of an amusing or satirical character, usually with a happy ending. The traditional theatrical genre can be simply described as a dramatic performance which pits two societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. However, in modern times the term has adopted a popular connotation associated with a variety of different media that proports to make others amused.

  • commemorative

    Use for items produced, issued, or worn to commemorate a person, event, or occasion. For structures erected to preserve the memory of persons or events, use "memorials."

  • commemorative medal

    medal made to celebrate a specific event, person or object

  • commemorative plaque

    a commemorative inscribed stone or metal plate

  • common cold

    a widespread infectious virus disease causing inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, and bronchial tubes. Symptoms include a sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, headache, cough, and general malaise.

  • comparative anatomy

    The study of the different physical forms of all animals including humans.

  • compass microscope

    Hand held simple microscope with compass like focusing arm, adjustable arm for specimen and eyepiece reflector (Lieberkuhn)

  • compasses (drawing instruments)

    Instruments for drawing circles and measuring the distance between two points; consisting of two pointed legs, movable on a joint or pivot, usually made so that one of the points can be detached for the insertion of a pen or an extension. DAC.

  • compendium instrument

    A selection of instruments incorporated into a single package to allow convient use together

  • compendiums

    Works containing in a smaller document the substance or general principles of larger works, often serving as a supplement to the larger work.

  • compliment slip

    A slip of paper that accompanies a goods order or information request. It typically provides the name, logo and address of the supplying business.

  • component - object

    Constituent parts of objects or structures

  • components

    Use for constituent parts of objects or structures. W.

  • compound magnet

    A magnet consisting of two or more separate magnets placed together with like poles pointing in the same direction.

  • compound microscope

    Microscope with multiple optical elements (lenses/mirrors). It has two microscopes in series, the first serving as the ocular lens (close to the eye) and the second serving as the objective lens (close to the object to be viewed).

  • comptometer

    Mechanical adding device through buttons arranged in a horizontal and vertical arrangement. "Comptometer" is a trade name of the Felt and Tarrant Manufacturing Company of Chicago,and after 1961 was licensed to Sumlock-Comptometer of Great Britain. It is widely used as a generic name for the class of device. The original design was patented in 1887 by Dorr Felt.

  • computer

    A machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions

  • computer storage device

    Computer device that can receive data and retain it for subsequent retrieval

  • concave mirror

    Mirror made of various materials (metal, glass, plastic etc) with a curved in form and good reflective surface that is smooth enough to produce a reflected image

  • conception

    The successful formation of a fertilised cell (zygote) by the union of the female ovum and the male sperm.

  • condenser

    An apparatus for condensing vapour.

  • conjoined twins

    Identical twins physically joined together at birth, formerly known as ‘Siamese’ twins. The location of the join can vary. Where possible, conjoined twins are often now separated through surgery.

  • conjunctivitis

    Inflammation of the conjunctiva (outer coating of the eye), which becomes red and produces a watery discharge. It is caused by infection or physical or chemical irritation and is easily treated.

  • connecting rod

    The rod which connects the piston rod at the crosshead (little end) to the crank pin (big end) to power the driving wheels.

  • consignment bill

    A document relating to the shipment of goods by the railway.

  • consignment note

    A listing for each 'batch' of goods.

  • consoles

    Use for projecting, scroll-shaped members serving as brackets or corbels. Often used to support entablatures and cornices over doorways and windows.

  • contact lens

    Thin lenses of glass or plastic which fit over the cornea and correct vision defects.

  • contagion

    A historic expression referring to the transmission of disease between people by means of direct contact.

  • container - medical waste

    Any container designed for the collection and disposal of medical waste

  • container - receptacle

    Receptacles or formed or flexible coverings designed to hold, store, or ship objects or substances.

  • container wagon

    A wagon designed or specially adapted for carrying demountable containers.

  • contraception

    The use of methods and techniques to prevent pregnancy from sex.

  • contraceptive implants and injections

    Contraceptive implants and injections are long-acting methods of contraception. They both slowly release a synthetic hormone called progestogen. This mimics the actions of the natural hormone progesterone by preventing ovulation. The implants are thin silicone structures usually implanted under the skin of the upper arm.

  • contrast media

    A contrast media is introduced into a patient's body to improve the detail of barely visible structures during an x-ray, e.g. the intestines.

  • controlled drug

    Substances that are controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (UK). These drugs are classified according to the amount of harm they cause when misused.

  • convulsion

    The violent involuntary contractions of a group of muscles.

  • cool box

    An insulated container for keeping food cool.

  • copy - derivative object

    Refers to objects derived from or made to resemble original existing objects. Implies less precise and faithful imitation than does the term "reproductions." When copies are presented with intent to deceive, use "forgeries" or "counterfeits." When more than one similar work is produced by the same maker, use "replicas" or "versions."

  • copy print

    Photographic prints produced by photographing a two-dimensional work, such as a drawing or painting, or by rephotographing another photograph.

  • coracle

    Small, broad round or roundish skin boat of various constructions used for river or coastal transport in ports of the Near East and Great Britain in ancient and modern times.

  • corkscrew

    A tool for drawing stopping corks from wine bottles. Generally, it consists of a pointed metallic helix (often called the "worm") attached to a handle.

  • cornea

    The transparent part of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil. It refracts light entering the eye on to the lens, which is then focused on to the retina.

  • correspondence

    Any forms of addressed and written communication sent and received, including letters, postcards, memorandums, notes, telegrams, or cables. ICA.

  • corset

    A tight undergarment worn by women to shape the figure. Historically tied with lace and structured with bone.

  • cortisone

    A steroid hormone, often used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergies and gout.

  • cosmetic applicator

    Brush, stick or impliment for applying cosmetics to the body

  • cosmetics

    Powders, lotion, lipstick, rouge or other preparations to be applied to the human body for the beautifying, preserving, or altering the appearance of a person.

  • costume

    The mode or fashion of personal attire and dress, including the way of wearing the hair, style of clothing, jewelry, crowns, scepters, and other accessories of personal adornment, belonging to a particular nation, class, period, or special occasion, including all items worn or carried by people for warmth, protection, embellishment, or symbolic purposes. In English, generally expressed in the singular.

  • counter scales

    Scales with the weighing pans above the beamscale that employs the 'Static Enigma' principle for their operation. Two types are commonly encountered those using the 'Roberval' and 'Beranger' principles. As neither the weights used or material being weighted need to be central in the pans they are commonly used in shops on the counter, hence the name.

  • counter-irritant

    Something that causes irritation to the skin in order to relieve the symptoms of underlying inflammations.

  • coupling

    A linkage between successive vehicles or between locomotive and train.

  • court plaster

    a plaster composed of gelatin on silk; formerly used to dress superficial wounds

  • cowpox

    Viral infection of cows' udders, transmitted to humans by direct contact, causing very mild symptoms similar to smallpox.

  • cramp ring

    From the reign of Edward III to that of Mary Tudor, monarchs used to bless a plateful of gold and silver rings every Good Friday at the altar of the Chapel Royal, rubbing them between their fingers. These became known as cramp rings, and this process was believed to give them the royal healing touch – thought to cure epilepsy, cramp, or paralysis.

  • cranial crochet

    An instrument used for removing the brain during mummification in ancient Egyptian cultures. Also used in abortive surgery in the 1800s.

  • craniometer

    Instrument for measuring the external dimensions of the skulls of deceased beings; for device to measure the skull of living being, use "cephalometer."

  • craniometry

    The study and measurement of different shaped and sized skulls.

  • cranioplasty

    Surgical repair of the skull, usually by covering the affected area with metal.

  • craniotomy

    Surgical removal of a portion of the skull in order to access the brain. The procedure is also done to a dead foetus in order to ease delivery.

  • crash helmet

    Helmet worn by motorcyclists, air crews, automobile racers, and others, to protect the head in the event of an accident.

  • crash test dummy

    Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropometric test devices (ATD) that simulate the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body, and are usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts. This data can include variables such as velocity of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision for use in crash tests. They remain indispensable in the development of and ergonomics in all types of vehicles, from automobiles to aircraft.

  • crates

    Large or strong containers used especially for transporting goods.

  • cream jug

    Container for holding and serving cream, especially a small pitcher that may be accompanied by a sugar bowl. Sometimes made as part of a tea or coffee service. For containers designed for holdi Containers for holding and serving cream, especially a small pitcher that may be accompanied by a sugar bowl. Sometimes made as part of a tea or coffee service. For containers designed for holding and serving milk, especially medium-sized pitchers, use "milk jug."

  • cremation

    The deliberate burning of a dead body at high temperatures to reduce it to ashes and fragments. These may be collected, containerised and then buried.

  • crest (armorial device)

    A heraldic or pseudo-heraldic device used as the insignia of the Railway Company. Often used on locomotives, passenger rolling stock, uniform buttons, stationery and official publications.

  • criminology

    The study of crime, its causes and criminals.

  • crosshead

    The link between the piston rod and connecting rod which travels on guides (or slide bars).

  • cross-staff

    Calibrated wooden rod with sliding crosspieces used for measuring the altitude of celestial bodies; forerunnners of modern sextant.

  • crowbar

    Steel bars with a flattened, forked, or chisel-shaped end which is sometimes slightly bent; used for heavy prying, and as a lever for moving heavy objects.

  • crucible

    A metal or ceramic container that is used to heat metals to high temperatures.

  • crucible holder

    A device for holding a vessel made of a refractory substance such as graphite or porcelain, used for melting and calcining materials at high temperatures.

  • cruet

    Vessel, usually a stopper, used to serve condiments; often made in sets of two or more.

  • cruet sets

    Sets of two to five cruets generally accompanied by a cruet stand or a small tray.

  • cryonics

    the practice or technique of deep-freezing the bodies of those who have died of an incurable disease, in the hope of a future cure. The term is a contraction of cryogenics, the branch of physics dealing with the production and effects of very low temperatures.

  • cryopreservation unit

    An area reserved for the preservation of tissue by freezing.

  • cryosurgery

    The use of extreme cold in a part of the body to freeze and destroy unwanted tissues.

  • cryosurgical equipment

    equipment used in cryosurgery

  • CT

    A form of X-ray examination in which the X-ray source and detector (CT scanner) rotates around an object. Produces a cross-sectional images by computer (a CT scan). A higher radiation dose is used than with some conventional X-ray techniques, but the diagnostic information obtained is far greater. CT scanning is particularly useful for the head, chest, and abdomen.

  • CT scanner

    A machine that performs a special form of X-ray examination. It fully rotates around the object to be scanned and the information is used to produce cross-sectional images by computer (a CT scan).

  • cuff links

    A decorative fastener worn by men or women to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a dress shirt or blouse.

  • cuirass

    A type of ventilator worn around the chest to aid breathing.

  • culinary knife

    Knife that is used for cutting and spreading by a person while eating, sometimes used synonymously with dessert or luncheon knives. The term can also be used to refer to all knives used as part of a place setting or rather all knives used for consuming and not for serving food.

  • culture plate

    A culture contained in a flat transparent dish and used chiefly for growing micro-organisms.

  • cultured human skin

    Human skin that has been artificially grown (cultured) from a smaller sample. Can be used on skin injuries such as burns.

  • cupping

    The application of a heated cup to the skin, creating a slight vacuum , which causes swelling of the tissues beneath and an increase in the flow of blood to the area. This was thought to draw out harmful excess blood from diseased organs nearby and so promote healing.

  • cupping glass

    Bowl or cup-like suction device, typically glass and with an open mouth, heated in order to create a partial vacuum, and then applied to the skin in order to draw blood to the surface.

  • cupping set

    Set of instruments to practice cupping. The purpose of cupping was to draw what was considered to be bad matter in the blood toward selected places in the body at the surface of the skin, away from vital organs.

  • curette

    An instrument shaped like a spoon that is used to scrape tissue from a body cavity.

  • curling tong

    Rod-shaped, usually metal instrument around which locks of hair are wound for curling by means of heat.

  • curry comb

    Combs made of rows of metallic teeth or serrated ridges; used especially in grooming a horse.

  • curtains

    Cloth hangings for windows, doorways, or other openings that are generally finished with hems, casings, pleats, or ruffles and hung by the top edge; used for privacy, control of light and drafts, or decoration.

  • curves

    Tools which take a variety of forms; used to guide draftsmen in drawing curved lines.

  • cut-away object

    Model or object that is either cut to show a section of it construction. Section may be a cross-section (both longitudinal & cross-sectional) or a small cut-away

  • cutlery

    Culinary utensils that have a cutting edge, especially various forms of knives used for cutting, carving, dividing, or serving food. Sometimes used to embrace all types of flat culinary utensils; however, prefer "flatware" when referring to forks, spoons, and similar culinary tools without a cutting edge.

  • cyanosis

    A bluish discolouration, applied especially to such discolouration of skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reduced haemoglobin in the blood.

  • cyanotype

    Blue-toned photographic prints produced by the blueprint process, not including reproductive prints of architectural or other technical drawings; for these, use "blueprints" or "blueline prints."

  • cycloidotrope

    Type of slide for a magic lantern

  • cylinder

    Instrument for measuring and recording the acuity of hearing.

  • cylix

    shallow cup with a small stem

  • cyst

    An enclosed sac that is filled with liquid or semi-solid matter.

  • cystic fibrosis

    A genetic disorder that affects the internal organs, especially the lungs and digestive system, by clogging them with thick sticky mucus. This makes it hard to breathe and digest food. Sufferers are usually treated with physiotherapy, exercise and medication.

  • cytochromes

    Iron pigment containing proteins present in every type of living cell.

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