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  • cabinet chair

    A piece of furniture that conceals a chamber pot. Used as a toilet.

  • cadaver

    A dead body, usually one being used in medical research.

  • Caesarian section

    A caesarean section is a common surgical procedure. Incisions are made through a pregnant woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby.

  • caffeine

    A mild stimulant that is found in tea and coffee. It is often included, in small doses, in pain relief preparations, and is claimed to increase its effects.

  • calculator

    Small electronic or mechanical device that performs calculations, requiring manual action for each individual operation.

  • calomel

    A white powder that is an example of a mercury compound. It was formerly swallowed and used as a laxative.

  • camphor

    An aromatic substance obtained from the wood of a southeast Asian tree (Cinnamomum camphora) or produced artificially. When applied to the skin it produces a cooling effect. Camphor can be used to relieve the pain of sprains, backache, rheumatism, and headaches.

  • cancer

    Any cancerous tumour. It arises from the abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells which then invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Cancer cells spread and can form secondary tumours some distance from the original.

  • cannula

    A tube for insertion into a duct or cavity in order to drain off fluid or give medication.

  • canopic jar

    Stone or ceramic jars in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of a deceased person as part of their burial practices.

  • cap - headgear

    Brimless head covering, usually made with a visor.

  • capillary electrometer

    An instrument used to measure very small amounts of voltage.

  • capillary tube

    A glass tube with a very small internal diameter.

  • carbolic acid

    A strong disinfectant used for cleansing wounds. It is rarely used today, although it can still be found in mouthwash.

  • carbolic spray

    A disinfectant spray using carbolic acid that was used by Joseph Lister around 1870. Sprayed around the surgical theatre, it could prevent the spread of germs.

  • card

    The term card primarily refers to cardboard or a piece of cardboard. More generally, the term can refer to any of various small flat objects, typically made from heavy paper or plastic.

  • card holder

    Devices or contrivances by which, or containers in which, something is held i.e. a card.

  • cardiac catheter

    A catheter that can be passed into the heart through a vein or artery, to withdraw samples of blood, measure pressures within the heart's chambers or great vessels, and inject contrast media

  • cardiac pacemaker

    Refers to the cells which emit impulses that control the contractions of the heart, regulating its beat. Can also refer to devices used to create these impulses artificially, if the heart’s ability to do so has been damaged.

  • cardiology

    The study of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels.

  • cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

    An emergency procedure, usually applied to those who have suffered a heart attack or some form of respiratory failure. It involves physical treatments intended to artificially create circulation. This is usually attempted through rhythmic pressing on the chest to manually pump blood through the heart and the ‘kiss of life’. The kiss of life exhales air into the patient to inflate the lungs and bring oxygen into the blood.

  • cardiospasm dilator

    A cardiospasm dilator treats cardiospasm or oesophageal achalasia. This is constriction of the lower portion of the food pipe (oesophagus) due to inability of the muscles to relax. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting and heartburn. Treatment includes oesophageal dilation using special instruments or medication.

  • caricature

    A representation that exaggerates certain features or characteristics to humorous effect.

  • carton

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • cartons

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • case

    A receptacle, holder, box, chest, bag, sheath, or covering fitted to contain or enclose something else; typically used for transporting or protecting the enclosed item or items. For cases designed to hold cameras use camera case.

  • cast

    Use for sculptural works or reproductions made by casting. In industrial and building trade contexts, prefer "castings."

  • castor oil

    A pale yellow vegetable oil used in medicine as a laxative. Castor oil is also used in some parts of the world for burning in lamps.

  • catalogue

    Enumerations of items, usually arranged systematically, with descriptive details; may be in book or pamphlet form, on cards

  • cataract

    Cloudiness on the lens of the eye impairing vision or causing blindness.

  • catgut

    A material prepared from animal tissue (usually sheep intestinal wall). It was twisted to different thicknesses and used to sew wounds and tie blood vessels. The material slowly dissolves and so the stitches do not require removal.

  • catheter

    A flexible tube, narrow enough to be inserted into the body, where it is used for withdrawing fluids. Most typically used for extracting urine from the bladder.

  • cauterise

    Using a hot iron to seal a wound to stop bleeding.

  • cautery

    To destroy tissue through contact with a hot implement. To remove warts, etc, or to stop small cuts bleeding.

  • cell

    Basic unit of all living organisms, it can reproduce itself exactly.

  • census

    An official (normally governmental) count of population.

  • central nervous system

    Consisting of the brain and spinal cord, it controls the activity of the body through nerve tissues.

  • cerebellum

    The cerebellum is traditionally recognised as the area of the brain that regulates muscle tone and coordination of movement. There is also evidence it contributes to non-motor functions such as thought processes and emotions.

  • ceremonial staff

    Weapon in the form of a single, long shaft, like a quarterstaff, that serve ceremonial or ritual function, for instance as symbols of office or public regalia. For weapons consisting of a long staff of wood, often tipped with iron at both ends, use "quarterstaff."

  • ceremonial sword

    Sword that plays a part in public state or civic ceremonies or rituals, being variously worn, carried, or presented, as symbols of honor or power.

  • certificate

    Documents giving authoritative recognition of a fact, qualification, or promise

  • cervical cap

    A barrier form of contraception. It consists of a thimble-shaped device which fits tightly over the entrance of the cervix. It blocks sperm from entering the uterus and thereby prevents fertilisation. Popular since the mid-1800s, their use has dropped dramatically in recent years.

  • cervix

    Neck of the uterus, projecting downwards into the vagina.

  • chamber pot

    Bowl-shaped container with a handle, used as a urinal at night. Chamber pots remained in common use until the 1900s when inside water closets replaced them. They are still used in countries where indoor plumbing is rare.

  • charity

    The noble act of voluntarily giving goods, money or time to those in need.

  • charm

    An object kept or worn in a belief that it has magical powers to protect against harm or to bring good luck.

  • charm - spell

    Written text of words said or chanted for magical effect. Used at magical ceremonies or arts; magic, sorcery, enchantment.

  • chart - graphic document

    A tabular or graphic representation of a fluctuating or dependent variable, such as magnitude, temperature, cost, etc.

  • chastity belt

    A garment which prevents the wearer from having sex.

  • chemical pathology

    The branch of pathology that deals with the basis of diseases and measures substances in body fluids in order to aid diagnoses and treatment.

  • chemistry

    The branch of science that studies substances which constitute matter with the aim of discovering their properties, how they react, and the uses and products of such reactions.

  • chemistry set

    A set of scientific apparatus which allows the user to perform simple scientific experiments.

  • chest protector

    A garment designed to protect the chest from injury. These are commonly worn when participating in hard contact sports or any other activity that carries a risk of injury.

  • chicken pox

    A common, highly infectious and contagious childhood virus that results in an itchy red rash.

  • chilblains

    A red itchy swelling that is caused when the skin is exposed to cold weather.

  • childcare

    The caring for or supervising of a child or children.

  • chloroform

    A liquid formerly used as a general anaesthetic although no longer used for this purpose as it causes liver damage and affects the heart rate. It is now used in low concentration to treat flatulence.

  • chloroform dropper bottle

    bottle used to hold chloroform and administer a small dose

  • chloroform mask

    mask used to administer chloroform, usually made from cloth

  • choler

    Another word for yellow bile, one of the four humours - the fluids of the body whose balance was believed to be essential to well-being.

  • cholera

    A severe infection of the small intestine commonly contracted through eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Causes severe vomiting and diarrhoea, leading to dehydration, which can be fatal.

  • chromatography

    A method of separating the different components of a chemical mixture. This allows a person to identify what components were in the mixture

  • chromosomes

    The basic elements of DNA - carriers of genetic information.

  • chronograph - timer

    Timepieces used to register the time of an event or graphically register specific time intervals, such as for the duration of events.

  • chronometer

    An accurate timepiece.

  • chronoscope

    Electronic device for measuring extremely short intervals of time with great accuracy, such as for determining the velocity of projectiles.

  • churchwarden pipe

    tobacco pipes with long stems, measuring up to and over 40 cm

  • cinchona

    The dried bark of any of the Cinchona trees. Used to stimulate the appetite, prevent bleeding and, in the past, to treat malaria.

  • cinchonine

    One of the compounds derived from the bark of various species of cinchona trees, used in several medical practices including anti-malarial treatments.

  • circulation

    The system of movement of the blood through the heart and blood vessels around the body.

  • circumcision

    Surgical removal of the foreskin around the penis. Usually for religious or ethical reasons, but may also be done for medical reasons.

  • circumcision knife

    A knife used to perform circumcision.

  • clamp

    An instrument for compression of a structure

  • Claude glass - optical drawing aid

    Device consisting of a black glass mirror of convex form in a carrying case. Used by landscape artists who observed their scene through the mirror, which would provide a picturesque aesthetic of a subtle gradation of tones. It is named after the artist Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) who is synonymous with this artistic movement.

  • cleft lip

    A condition occurring in the womb where the palate and lip do not fuse completely.

  • clergy stole

    a priest's silk vestment worn over the shoulders and hanging down to the knee or below.

  • clinical chemistry

    The study of health, disease and drugs at a chemical, molecular and cellular model.

  • clinical diagnosis

    A diagnosis given based on the signs and symptoms of a disease.

  • clitoridectomy knife

    Knife used for the removal of the clitoris (clitoridectomy), more often a therapeutic rather than medical procedure.

  • cloning

    A process where cells are produced asexually (neither male, nor female) and are genetically identical to the parent cell from which they are produced.

  • cloth

    Use generally for textile that is woven, felted, knit, pounded, or otherwise made into a flat piece

  • clothes peg

    used to grip laundry on a washing line

  • clotting factors

    Chemicals in the blood which interact to make the blood clot.

  • club foot

    A condition where the foot is twisted and so the sole cannot be placed flat on the floor.

  • coat - garment

    Main garment usually fitted to the upper body, extending below the hip line, open at the front or side and generally having sleeves. Also, similar outer garment worn for warmth or protection from the weather.

  • cocaine

    White, crystalline powder extracted from the leaves of the coca plant. Once used as a local anaesthetic, it is now an illegal drug. It is habit-forming and harmful to the body.

  • cochlear implant

    A device surgically implanted in the cochlea which translates sound into electrical impulses conveyed to the auditory nerve to facilitate hearing.

  • coconut

    Fruit of the tropical palm coco nucifera (coco-palm)

  • cocoon

    Case or wrapping produced by larval forms of animals (such as some moths, butterflies, and wasps) for protection during the pupal stage in their life cycle. Most cocoons are made of silk.

  • coeliac disease

    A digestive intolerance of the small intestine to foods that contain gluten.

  • coffin

    Box or chest for a corpse to be buried in.

  • cognitive behavioural therapy

    Type of therapy using analysis of behaviour and thought patterns. The patient is encouraged to analyse his or her specific ways of thinking around a problem. The therapist then looks at the resulting behaviour and the consequences of that thinking and tries to encourage the patient to change his or her cognition in order to avoid adverse behaviour or its consequences.

  • coitus interruptus

    A method of contraception in which the penis is withdrawn from the vagina prior to ejaculation. Also known as the withdrawal method.

  • colic

    Severe abdominal pain caused by obstruction of the intestine or by constipation.

  • cologne

    Scented water, similar to perfume.

  • colorimeter

    Instrument for the analysis, synthesis, matching, and measurement of colour; it compares a given colour to a standard colour from a scale of colours, combinations of primary colours.

  • colour blindness test

    A test to find whether a person is colour blind. The most commonly used test in the world is the Ishihara test invented in 1917, where numbers are concealed within a circle of different colours.

  • comb - grooming tool

    Tool with a row of teeth on one or both edges or sides that are used for adjusting, distangling, or cleaning the hair.

  • comedy

    a play, film, etc., of an amusing or satirical character, usually with a happy ending. The traditional theatrical genre can be simply described as a dramatic performance which pits two societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. However, in modern times the term has adopted a popular connotation associated with a variety of different media that proports to make others amused.

  • commemorative

    Use for items produced, issued, or worn to commemorate a person, event, or occasion. For structures erected to preserve the memory of persons or events, use "memorials."

  • common cold

    a widespread infectious virus disease causing inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, and bronchial tubes. Symptoms include a sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, headache, cough, and general malaise.

  • comparative anatomy

    The study of the different physical forms of all animals including humans.

  • compass microscope

    Hand held simple microscope with compass like focusing arm, adjustable arm for specimen and eyepiece reflector (Lieberkuhn)

  • compendium instrument

    A selection of instruments incorporated into a single package to allow convient use together

  • compliment slip

    A slip of paper that accompanies a goods order or information request. It typically provides the name, logo and address of the supplying business.

  • component - object

    Constituent parts of objects or structures

  • compound microscope

    Microscope with multiple optical elements (lenses/mirrors). It has two microscopes in series, the first serving as the ocular lens (close to the eye) and the second serving as the objective lens (close to the object to be viewed).

  • conception

    The successful formation of a fertilised cell (zygote) by the union of the female ovum and the male sperm.

  • condenser

    An apparatus for condensing vapour.

  • conjoined twins

    Identical twins physically joined together at birth, formerly known as ‘Siamese’ twins. The location of the join can vary. Where possible, conjoined twins are often now separated through surgery.

  • conjunctivitis

    Inflammation of the conjunctiva (outer coating of the eye), which becomes red and produces a watery discharge. It is caused by infection or physical or chemical irritation and is easily treated.

  • contact lens

    Thin lenses of glass or plastic which fit over the cornea and correct vision defects.

  • contagion

    A historic expression referring to the transmission of disease between people by means of direct contact.

  • container - medical waste

    Any container designed for the collection and disposal of medical waste

  • container - receptacle

    Receptacles or formed or flexible coverings designed to hold, store, or ship objects or substances.

  • contraception

    The use of methods and techniques to prevent pregnancy from sex.

  • contraceptive implants and injections

    Contraceptive implants and injections are long-acting methods of contraception. They both slowly release a synthetic hormone called progestogen. This mimics the actions of the natural hormone progesterone by preventing ovulation. The implants are thin silicone structures usually implanted under the skin of the upper arm.

  • contrast media

    A contrast media is introduced into a patient's body to improve the detail of barely visible structures during an x-ray, e.g. the intestines.

  • controlled drug

    Substances that are controlled under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (UK). These drugs are classified according to the amount of harm they cause when misused.

  • convulsion

    The violent involuntary contractions of a group of muscles.

  • cool box

    An insulated container for keeping food cool.

  • copy - derivative object

    Refers to objects derived from or made to resemble original existing objects. Implies less precise and faithful imitation than does the term "reproductions." When copies are presented with intent to deceive, use "forgeries" or "counterfeits." When more than one similar work is produced by the same maker, use "replicas" or "versions."

  • cornea

    The transparent part of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil. It refracts light entering the eye on to the lens, which is then focused on to the retina.

  • corset

    A tight undergarment worn by women to shape the figure. Historically tied with lace and structured with bone.

  • cortisone

    A steroid hormone, often used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergies and gout.

  • cosmetic applicator

    Brush, stick or impliment for applying cosmetics to the body

  • cosmetics

    Powders, lotion, lipstick, rouge or other preparations to be applied to the human body for the beautifying, preserving, or altering the appearance of a person.

  • costume

    The mode or fashion of personal attire and dress, including the way of wearing the hair, style of clothing, jewelry, crowns, scepters, and other accessories of personal adornment, belonging to a particular nation, class, period, or special occasion, including all items worn or carried by people for warmth, protection, embellishment, or symbolic purposes. In English, generally expressed in the singular.

  • counter scales

    Scales with the weighing pans above the beamscale that employs the 'Static Enigma' principle for their operation. Two types are commonly encountered those using the 'Roberval' and 'Beranger' principles. As neither the weights used or material being weighted need to be central in the pans they are commonly used in shops on the counter, hence the name.

  • counter-irritant

    Something that causes irritation to the skin in order to relieve the symptoms of underlying inflammations.

  • court plaster

    a plaster composed of gelatin on silk; formerly used to dress superficial wounds

  • cowpox

    Viral infection of cows' udders, transmitted to humans by direct contact, causing very mild symptoms similar to smallpox.

  • cramp ring

    From the reign of Edward III to that of Mary Tudor, monarchs used to bless a plateful of gold and silver rings every Good Friday at the altar of the Chapel Royal, rubbing them between their fingers. These became known as cramp rings, and this process was believed to give them the royal healing touch – thought to cure epilepsy, cramp, or paralysis.

  • cranial crochet

    An instrument used for removing the brain during mummification in ancient Egyptian cultures. Also used in abortive surgery in the 1800s.

  • craniometer

    Instrument for measuring the external dimensions of the skulls of deceased beings; for device to measure the skull of living being, use "cephalometer."

  • craniometry

    The study and measurement of different shaped and sized skulls.

  • cranioplasty

    Surgical repair of the skull, usually by covering the affected area with metal.

  • craniotomy

    Surgical removal of a portion of the skull in order to access the brain. The procedure is also done to a dead foetus in order to ease delivery.

  • crash helmet

    Helmet worn by motorcyclists, air crews, automobile racers, and others, to protect the head in the event of an accident.

  • crash test dummy

    Crash test dummies are full-scale anthropometric test devices (ATD) that simulate the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body, and are usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts. This data can include variables such as velocity of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision for use in crash tests. They remain indispensable in the development of and ergonomics in all types of vehicles, from automobiles to aircraft.

  • cremation

    The deliberate burning of a dead body at high temperatures to reduce it to ashes and fragments. These may be collected, containerised and then buried.

  • criminology

    The study of crime, its causes and criminals.

  • crucible

    A metal or ceramic container that is used to heat metals to high temperatures.

  • cryonics

    the practice or technique of deep-freezing the bodies of those who have died of an incurable disease, in the hope of a future cure. The term is a contraction of cryogenics, the branch of physics dealing with the production and effects of very low temperatures.

  • cryopreservation unit

    An area reserved for the preservation of tissue by freezing.

  • cryosurgery

    The use of extreme cold in a part of the body to freeze and destroy unwanted tissues.

  • cryosurgical equipment

    equipment used in cryosurgery

  • CT

    A form of X-ray examination in which the X-ray source and detector (CT scanner) rotates around an object. Produces a cross-sectional images by computer (a CT scan). A higher radiation dose is used than with some conventional X-ray techniques, but the diagnostic information obtained is far greater. CT scanning is particularly useful for the head, chest, and abdomen.

  • CT scanner

    A machine that performs a special form of X-ray examination. It fully rotates around the object to be scanned and the information is used to produce cross-sectional images by computer (a CT scan).

  • cuff links

    A decorative fastener worn by men or women to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a dress shirt or blouse.

  • cuirass

    A type of ventilator worn around the chest to aid breathing.

  • culture plate

    A culture contained in a flat transparent dish and used chiefly for growing micro-organisms.

  • cultured human skin

    Human skin that has been artificially grown (cultured) from a smaller sample. Can be used on skin injuries such as burns.

  • cupping

    The application of a heated cup to the skin, creating a slight vacuum , which causes swelling of the tissues beneath and an increase in the flow of blood to the area. This was thought to draw out harmful excess blood from diseased organs nearby and so promote healing.

  • cupping set

    Set of instruments to practice cupping. The purpose of cupping was to draw what was considered to be bad matter in the blood toward selected places in the body at the surface of the skin, away from vital organs.

  • curette

    An instrument shaped like a spoon that is used to scrape tissue from a body cavity.

  • curling tong

    Rod-shaped, usually metal instrument around which locks of hair are wound for curling by means of heat.

  • cut-away object

    Model or object that is either cut to show a section of it construction. Section may be a cross-section (both longitudinal & cross-sectional) or a small cut-away

  • cutlery

    Culinary utensils that have a cutting edge, especially various forms of knives used for cutting, carving, dividing, or serving food. Sometimes used to embrace all types of flat culinary utensils; however, prefer "flatware" when referring to forks, spoons, and similar culinary tools without a cutting edge.

  • cyanosis

    A bluish discolouration, applied especially to such discolouration of skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reduced haemoglobin in the blood.

  • cylix

    shallow cup with a small stem

  • cyst

    An enclosed sac that is filled with liquid or semi-solid matter.

  • cystic fibrosis

    A genetic disorder that affects the internal organs, especially the lungs and digestive system, by clogging them with thick sticky mucus. This makes it hard to breathe and digest food. Sufferers are usually treated with physiotherapy, exercise and medication.

  • cytochromes

    Iron pigment containing proteins present in every type of living cell.

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