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Glossary

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C

  • cardio-pulmonary resuscitation

    An emergency procedure, usually applied to those who have suffered a heart attack or some form of respiratory failure. It involves physical treatments intended to artificially create circulation. This is usually attempted through rhythmic pressing on the chest to manually pump blood through the heart and the ‘kiss of life’. The kiss of life exhales air into the patient to inflate the lungs and bring oxygen into the blood.

  • cardiospasm dilator

    A cardiospasm dilator treats cardiospasm or oesophageal achalasia. This is constriction of the lower portion of the food pipe (oesophagus) due to inability of the muscles to relax. Symptoms include difficulty swallowing, chest pain, vomiting and heartburn. Treatment includes oesophageal dilation using special instruments or medication.

  • caricature

    A representation that exaggerates certain features or characteristics to humorous effect.

  • carton

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • cartons

    Cardboard or plastic boxes used typically for storage or shipping, especially those which are relatively small and that when filled with merchandise are enclosed in a larger or stronger container for transport.

  • case

    A receptacle, holder, box, chest, bag, sheath, or covering fitted to contain or enclose something else; typically used for transporting or protecting the enclosed item or items. For cases designed to hold cameras use camera case.

  • cast

    Use for sculptural works or reproductions made by casting. In industrial and building trade contexts, prefer "castings."

  • castor oil

    A pale yellow vegetable oil used in medicine as a laxative. Castor oil is also used in some parts of the world for burning in lamps.

  • catalogue

    Enumerations of items, usually arranged systematically, with descriptive details; may be in book or pamphlet form, on cards

  • cataract

    Cloudiness on the lens of the eye impairing vision or causing blindness.

  • catgut

    A material prepared from animal tissue (usually sheep intestinal wall). It was twisted to different thicknesses and used to sew wounds and tie blood vessels. The material slowly dissolves and so the stitches do not require removal.

  • catheter

    A flexible tube, narrow enough to be inserted into the body, where it is used for withdrawing fluids. Most typically used for extracting urine from the bladder.

  • cauterise

    Using a hot iron to seal a wound to stop bleeding.

  • cautery

    To destroy tissue through contact with a hot implement. To remove warts, etc, or to stop small cuts bleeding.

  • cell

    Basic unit of all living organisms, it can reproduce itself exactly.

  • census

    An official (normally governmental) count of population.

  • central nervous system

    Consisting of the brain and spinal cord, it controls the activity of the body through nerve tissues.

  • cerebellum

    The cerebellum is traditionally recognised as the area of the brain that regulates muscle tone and coordination of movement. There is also evidence it contributes to non-motor functions such as thought processes and emotions.

  • ceremonial staff

    Weapon in the form of a single, long shaft, like a quarterstaff, that serve ceremonial or ritual function, for instance as symbols of office or public regalia. For weapons consisting of a long staff of wood, often tipped with iron at both ends, use "quarterstaff."

  • ceremonial sword

    Sword that plays a part in public state or civic ceremonies or rituals, being variously worn, carried, or presented, as symbols of honor or power.

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