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D

  • dagger - weapon

    Weapon with a short, double-edged, sharp-pointed blade and a grip, used for stabbing or parrying.

  • DDT

    A synthetic pesticide used for controlling insects, especially mosquitoes that carry malaria. Its prolonged use is harmful to the environment, in particular to birds. Now banned from agriculture, it remains in use in some parts of the world.

  • deafness

    A condition where the hearing in both ears in not functional to ordinary levels.

  • death mask

    A cast taken of a person's face after death, usually made from plaster or wax.

  • decomposition

    The slow disintegration of dead organic matter by chemical reaction into simpler elements.

  • defibrillator

    A device that delivers a measured electric shock to the heart. Designed to prevent the irregular seizing of muscles in the heart (fibrillation). If the defibrillator is successful, the normal rhythm of the heart resumes.

  • dehydration

    The results of extreme loss of water.

  • dental burnisher

    An instrument for smoothing and polishing the surface or edge of a dental restoration.

  • dental drill

    A rotary power-driven instrument into which cutting points may be inserted. Used to remove decay from teeth.

  • dental elevator

    A dental instrument used to remove teeth or parts of teeth that cannot be gripped with forceps or to loosen teeth and roots before using dental forceps.

  • dental forceps

    Forceps used specifically to remove teeth.

  • dental instrument

    Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks

  • dental instrument set

    Set of dental instruments

  • dental key

    Used in dentistry to remove diseased teeth. The dental key’s ‘claw’ would be tightened over a tooth. The instrument was then rotated to loosen the tooth. This often resulted in the tooth breaking, causing jaw fractures and soft tissue damage. It has been replaced by modern forceps.

  • dental pelican

    Used for extracting teeth sideways. Invented by Guy de Chauliac in the 1300s. It was used for tooth extraction before the use of dental keys.

  • dentistry

    The study, treatment and management of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, gums, teeth and their supporting tissues.

  • dentist's chair

    Dentist's chairs are deeply reclining chairs to allow the dentist easy access to the patient's mouth. The reclining position adjusts as well as the overall height of the chair. Associated with the chair are usually a variety of dental equipment, often including a small tap and sink for the patient to rinse his or her mouth.

  • denture

    A replacement tooth, or set of teeth that are usually removable.

  • denture articulator

    a hinged frame that simulates jaw movements (source, upper wellcome label)

  • depilatory tweezers

    tweezers used for the plucking of body hair

  • depression

    A mental state associated with acute sadness. Activity can be decreased, especially interaction with others, and sleep, appetite, and concentration can also be disturbed.

  • dermatome

    an instrument for cutting thin skin slices for grafting

  • dewar flask

    a double-walled flask of metal or silvered glass with a vacuum between the walls, used to hold liquids at well below ambient temperature, named after Sir James Dewar (1842–1923), Scottish chemist and physicist.

  • diabetes

    This term refers to any form of metabolic disorder characterized by extreme thirst and excess urine production.

  • diagnostic figure

    A carved figure used by women to indicate their symptoms in an age when it was considered improper for a male doctor to examine female patients.

  • diagnostic tool

    Any range of medical instruments used to diagnose illness.

  • diaphragm

    A barrier form of contraception. It consists of a dome-shaped latex or silicone disc with a flexible rim that covers the cervix. In combination with a spermicide it blocks sperm from entering the uterus and thereby prevents fertilisation. Popular since the late 1800s, their use has considerably reduced in recent years.

  • diarrhoea

    Frequent movement of the bowels, commonly in liquid form.

  • digestion

    The process in which food passes through the stomach and intestines and is converted into products that can be absorbed into the blood.

  • digitalin

    Any plant from the Digitalis genus. Its dried leaves and seeds are used to treat some forms of heart failure. Its acts by stimulating the nervous system.

  • digoxin

    A drug extracted from the digitalis plants, specifically the Foxglove, used to treat heart failure. It heightens heart muscle contraction and decreases the heart rate. The line between therapeutic and toxic dose is fine.

  • dilation

    Enlargement or expansion of a body part

  • dilator

    An instrument for expanding something or a part of something. In surgery this is often a passageway or an organ.

  • diorama

    A model with three-dimensional objects, often sculpture, with a realistic painted background.

  • diphtheria

    An acute highly contagious infection, generally affecting the throat but occasionally other mucous membranes and the skin. Diphtheria has been largely eradicated due to world-wide vaccination efforts.

  • diphtheria test

    trial term S&H

  • disease

    An alteration in the normal condition of a body part, organ or system of an individual, interrupting the performance of vital functions. This can result from various causes. Each disease is characterized by an identifiable group of symptoms.

  • diseases of affluence

    A phrase that refers to diseases that are considered to be a result of increasing wealth within a society. Unlike diseases of poverty, they tend to be non-infectious and include coronary heart disease, type-2 diabetes, certain cancers and clinical conditions such as obesity. However, as habits change within a society, strict definitions of what are diseases of affluence often change.

  • diseases of old age

    Refers to a group of diseases whose appearance is more common in older people and therefore on the increase in societies where individuals are living longer. Examples include arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and osteoporosis. The treatment and care of older people is known as geriatric medicine.

  • diseases of poverty

    A phrase that refers to diseases that are seen to be more common in conditions of poverty. They are often contagious and can be associated with overcrowding, malnutrition or environmental and industrial factors. Three major diseases of poverty are AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

  • dish - vessel

    Any of various broad, relatively shallow, open vessel with a flat bottom, concave sides, and nearly level rim, sometimes having a cover; made of pottery, glass, metal, wood or another material and used for many purposes, especially for holding or serving food. In modern usage it is typically reserved for vessels at a dining table used for serving or holding food other than the round, flat or very shallow object used by the person dining, which is called a "plate"; however, formerly the plate was also called a "dish."

  • disinfectant

    Material used for killing germs, bacteria, or spores.

  • disinfectant bottle

    Bottle containing disinfectant.

  • disinfection

    A process of cleaning that kills most micro-organisms.

  • dislocation

    The movement of a bone from its normal position resulting in loss of contact between the bone and the joint surface.

  • dispenser

    An object, machine or a person that distributes something.

  • dispensing pot

    pot used to contain ointments, medications, perfumes

  • display bottle

    Used to describe a bottle containing a substance, used for display or storage

  • dissection

    The cutting apart and separation of body tissues for the purposes of critical examination. Dissection of corpses is often carried out for the study of anatomy.

  • distillation

    A technique to remove or separate components in a liquid mixture. It works because chemicals have different boiling points. Vapours produced by boiling are cooled and then collected when condensed.

  • district nurse

    In Britain, a nurse who is specifically trained to treat patients in their home.

  • diuretic

    An agent that increases the excretion of urine.

  • divination

    The practice of seeking knowledge of the future through the interpretation of omens or other supernatural means.

  • DNA analyser

    Laboratory equipment for anaylsing DNA

  • DNA sequencer

    Machine that sequences DNA, used to sequence the bases that make up a small lenth of DNA (stores the information, or blueprints, of every cell and is located in the genes).

  • dog collar

    A collar for a dog's neck. Also an informal name for clerical collar, or close-fitting collars worn by men and women.

  • dolls

    Human or humanoid figurines, especially those used for play, and certain ones used for ceremonial, religious, or decorative purposes.

  • donkey engine

    A method of spraying antiseptic used by Joseph Lister, powered by hand and placed upon a tripod. The amount of carbolic acid that it delivered was so powerful that it had to be abandoned.

  • donor card

    A card indicating the consent of the holder to use his or her organs for transplant in the event of death.

  • door panel

    sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of a door

  • doshas

    The three energies in Ayurveda medicine. When in balance with each other are believed to maintain good health and also determine personality.

  • double helix

    The name for the shape of two strands of DNA when bound together into a twisted helix.

  • douche

    Liquids (sea water, lemon juice, vinegar or shop-bought preparations) used to rinse the vagina before or after sexual activity.

  • dressings

    Remedies and bandages used to dress or cover a sore, wound, or other lesion.

  • drink dispenser

    A device designed specifically for the easy dispensing of liquid to an ill individual, presumably one who is lying down.

  • drop foot

    A condition where the foot and toes cannot be turned upwards, or at right angles to the leg. This results in an abnormal way of walking.

  • dropsy

    An accumulation of fluid in the body tissues which results in swelling.

  • drug

    Any animal, vegetable, or mineral substance used in the composition of medicines. They affect the structure or function of a living organism.

  • drug jar

    A (usually earthenware) container designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs.

  • dwarfism

    A condition characterized by being very short, but with standard body proportions. It occurs from an insufficient production of growth hormone.

  • dynamometer

    An apparatus for measuring force or power. In particular muscular effort of humans or animals, the power developed by a motor, or that needed to operate machinery. It commonly has a spring to be compressed or weight to be sustained by the force applied.

  • dysentery

    Infectious disease with symptoms including diarrhoea, bleeding, and abdominal cramps. It spreads in contaminated food and water, especially in the tropics.

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