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D

  • dagger - weapon

    Weapon with a short, double-edged, sharp-pointed blade and a grip, used for stabbing or parrying.

  • Daguerreotype

    Photographs made by the process called daguerreotype, which produces a direct positive image on a silver-coated copper plate. They are often mounted in special cases lined with red velvet or leather.

  • daguerreotype (process)

    Process that produces a direct positive image on a silver-coated copper plate, invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre of France and Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce in the 1830s. In the process, a copper plate is coated with silver iodide and exposed to light in a camera, then fumed with mercury vapour and fixed with common salt in solution.

  • dandy car

    A horse hauled passenger carriage.

  • dandy cart

    A wagon in which a horse travelled to descend an incline, behind a train going down under gravity, after having hauled a train up.

  • data recorder set

    Item used for recording information

  • DDT

    A synthetic pesticide used for controlling insects, especially mosquitoes that carry malaria. Its prolonged use is harmful to the environment, in particular to birds. Now banned from agriculture, it remains in use in some parts of the world.

  • deafness

    A condition where the hearing in both ears in not functional to ordinary levels.

  • death mask

    A cast taken of a person's face after death, usually made from plaster or wax.

  • decomposition

    The slow disintegration of dead organic matter by chemical reaction into simpler elements.

  • deduction mandate

    An authority, signed by the employee, for their employer to make certain deductions from their pay.

  • deeds

    Documents, usually executed under seal, containing a conveyance, especially of real estate. RHDEL2.

  • defibrillator

    A device that delivers a measured electric shock to the heart. Designed to prevent the irregular seizing of muscles in the heart (fibrillation). If the defibrillator is successful, the normal rhythm of the heart resumes.

  • dehydration

    The results of extreme loss of water.

  • dental burnisher

    An instrument for smoothing and polishing the surface or edge of a dental restoration.

  • dental drill

    A rotary power-driven instrument into which cutting points may be inserted. Used to remove decay from teeth.

  • dental elevator

    A dental instrument used to remove teeth or parts of teeth that cannot be gripped with forceps or to loosen teeth and roots before using dental forceps.

  • dental forceps

    Forceps used specifically to remove teeth.

  • dental instrument

    Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks

  • dental instrument set

    Set of dental instruments

  • dental key

    Used in dentistry to remove diseased teeth. The dental key’s ‘claw’ would be tightened over a tooth. The instrument was then rotated to loosen the tooth. This often resulted in the tooth breaking, causing jaw fractures and soft tissue damage. It has been replaced by modern forceps.

  • dental pelican

    Used for extracting teeth sideways. Invented by Guy de Chauliac in the 1300s. It was used for tooth extraction before the use of dental keys.

  • dentistry

    The study, treatment and management of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, gums, teeth and their supporting tissues.

  • dentist's chair

    Dentist's chairs are deeply reclining chairs to allow the dentist easy access to the patient's mouth. The reclining position adjusts as well as the overall height of the chair. Associated with the chair are usually a variety of dental equipment, often including a small tap and sink for the patient to rinse his or her mouth.

  • denture

    A replacement tooth, or set of teeth that are usually removable.

  • denture articulator

    a hinged frame that simulates jaw movements (source, upper wellcome label)

  • departure board

    A notice at a railway station showing the destination and departure times of trains.

  • depilatory tweezers

    tweezers used for the plucking of body hair

  • deposit book

    Receipts from a bank certifying that a specified sum of money has been received for deposit, often for a specified length of time and at specified rates of interest.

  • depression

    A mental state associated with acute sadness. Activity can be decreased, especially interaction with others, and sleep, appetite, and concentration can also be disturbed.

  • depth gauge

    Instrument consisting of a rule that slides through a crosspiece and is inserted to measure the depth of holes, grooves, or other similar small depressions.

  • dermatome

    an instrument for cutting thin skin slices for grafting

  • dessert fork

    Forks smaller than a dinner fork intended primarily for eating desserts; generally having a short handle and three or four, but sometimes two, tines. May be accompanied by a dessert spoon; sometimes a part of a dessert service.

  • dessert knife

    Knives smaller than a dinner knife intended for eating desserts; generally having a shorter handle and may have a curved and pointed blade; sometimes a part of a dessert service.

  • dessert spoon

    Spoons intended for eating desserts, intermediate in size between a teaspoon and a tablespoon. May be accompanied by a dessert fork; sometimes a part of a dessert service.

  • detective camera

    Compact cameras made to resemble a variety of objects like books or opera glasses or made to be concealed in clothing; used for taking pictures unnoticed and often from unexpected angles.

  • detonator tin

    A metal cylindrical container for the storage of detonators.

  • dewar flask

    a double-walled flask of metal or silvered glass with a vacuum between the walls, used to hold liquids at well below ambient temperature, named after Sir James Dewar (1842–1923), Scottish chemist and physicist.

  • diabetes

    This term refers to any form of metabolic disorder characterized by extreme thirst and excess urine production.

  • diagnostic figure

    A carved figure used by women to indicate their symptoms in an age when it was considered improper for a male doctor to examine female patients.

  • diagnostic tool

    Any range of medical instruments used to diagnose illness.

  • diagram

    Graphic designs that explain rather than represent

  • dial scales

    Use for scales generally characterized as having a large dial on the front of a box containing the mechanism, on top of which is mounted the weighing surface.

  • diaphragm

    A barrier form of contraception. It consists of a dome-shaped latex or silicone disc with a flexible rim that covers the cervix. In combination with a spermicide it blocks sperm from entering the uterus and thereby prevents fertilisation. Popular since the late 1800s, their use has considerably reduced in recent years.

  • diarrhoea

    Frequent movement of the bowels, commonly in liquid form.

  • diary

    Refers to books containing the daily, personal accounts of the writer's own experiences, attitudes, and observations. Use "journals (accounts)" when referring to an individual's or an organization's account of occurrences or transactions.

  • die

    a device used for shaping metal.

  • die holder

    A device which helps assure accurate alignment when threading a turned part.

  • diesel electric locomotive

    A locomotive powered by electric traction motors which carries its own generating plant fuelled by diesel.

  • diesel locomotive

    A locomotive whose principal power source is a diesel engine.

  • diesel mechanical locomotive

    A locomotive powered by diesel with mechanical transmission system.

  • diesel railcar

    A diesel powered passenger carrying vehicle.

  • diesel-electric locomotives

    Use for locomotives in which power is developed by oil-burning internal combustion engines driving electric generators that supply power to electric traction motors for propulsion.

  • diesel-hydraulic locomotives

    Use for locomotives in which power developed by oil-burning internal combustion engines is delivered through hydraulic transmissions to driving rods and axles by means of shafts and gears.

  • diffraction grating - reflection

    Material (glass, metal, plastic etc.) with reflective surface upon which fine grooves are made either by ruling of impressed in the case of replica gratings. When light is reflected, mutiple spectra are produced by the effects of dispersion and interference.

  • digestion

    The process in which food passes through the stomach and intestines and is converted into products that can be absorbed into the blood.

  • digital camera

    A general term that refers to any camera capable of acquiring still or motion pictures via an electronic sensor and storing them as digital information on a memory device.

  • digitalin

    Any plant from the Digitalis genus. Its dried leaves and seeds are used to treat some forms of heart failure. Its acts by stimulating the nervous system.

  • digoxin

    A drug extracted from the digitalis plants, specifically the Foxglove, used to treat heart failure. It heightens heart muscle contraction and decreases the heart rate. The line between therapeutic and toxic dose is fine.

  • dilation

    Enlargement or expansion of a body part

  • dilatometer

    Devices for measuring thermal expansion and dilation of liquids or solids.

  • dilator

    An instrument for expanding something or a part of something. In surgery this is often a passageway or an organ.

  • dining car

    A railway carriage equipped for dining.

  • dinner fork

    Large-size forks in a place setting, used for consuming the main course of a meal.

  • dinner plate

    Plates for holding an individual portion of the main course of a meal; often circular, but sometimes oval, octagonal, or other form.

  • diorama

    A model with three-dimensional objects, often sculpture, with a realistic painted background.

  • diphtheria

    An acute highly contagious infection, generally affecting the throat but occasionally other mucous membranes and the skin. Diphtheria has been largely eradicated due to world-wide vaccination efforts.

  • diphtheria test

    trial term S&H

  • disease

    An alteration in the normal condition of a body part, organ or system of an individual, interrupting the performance of vital functions. This can result from various causes. Each disease is characterized by an identifiable group of symptoms.

  • diseases of affluence

    A phrase that refers to diseases that are considered to be a result of increasing wealth within a society. Unlike diseases of poverty, they tend to be non-infectious and include coronary heart disease, type-2 diabetes, certain cancers and clinical conditions such as obesity. However, as habits change within a society, strict definitions of what are diseases of affluence often change.

  • diseases of old age

    Refers to a group of diseases whose appearance is more common in older people and therefore on the increase in societies where individuals are living longer. Examples include arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and osteoporosis. The treatment and care of older people is known as geriatric medicine.

  • diseases of poverty

    A phrase that refers to diseases that are seen to be more common in conditions of poverty. They are often contagious and can be associated with overcrowding, malnutrition or environmental and industrial factors. Three major diseases of poverty are AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

  • dish - vessel

    Any of various broad, relatively shallow, open vessel with a flat bottom, concave sides, and nearly level rim, sometimes having a cover; made of pottery, glass, metal, wood or another material and used for many purposes, especially for holding or serving food. In modern usage it is typically reserved for vessels at a dining table used for serving or holding food other than the round, flat or very shallow object used by the person dining, which is called a "plate"; however, formerly the plate was also called a "dish."

  • dishes

    Open, often shallow, containers, sometimes having a cover; made of pottery, glass, metal, wood or the like and used for various purposes, especially for holding or serving food.

  • disinfectant

    Material used for killing germs, bacteria, or spores.

  • disinfectant bottle

    Bottle containing disinfectant.

  • disinfection

    A process of cleaning that kills most micro-organisms.

  • dislocation

    The movement of a bone from its normal position resulting in loss of contact between the bone and the joint surface.

  • dispenser

    An object, machine or a person that distributes something.

  • dispensing pot

    pot used to contain ointments, medications, perfumes

  • display bottle

    Used to describe a bottle containing a substance, used for display or storage

  • display card

    Small card displaying the advertisers name

  • dissection

    The cutting apart and separation of body tissues for the purposes of critical examination. Dissection of corpses is often carried out for the study of anatomy.

  • distillation

    A technique to remove or separate components in a liquid mixture. It works because chemicals have different boiling points. Vapours produced by boiling are cooled and then collected when condensed.

  • district nurse

    In Britain, a nurse who is specifically trained to treat patients in their home.

  • diuretic

    An agent that increases the excretion of urine.

  • dividers

    Measuring devices with two legs movable on a joint or pivot, similar in form to drawing compasses but with two metal points and used, for example, to divide lines, transfer dimensions, or lay off circles or arcs.

  • dividing engine

    A device specifically employed to mark graduations on measurement instruments OED

  • divination

    The practice of seeking knowledge of the future through the interpretation of omens or other supernatural means.

  • divination object

    Objecs used in divination or associated with divination rituals.

  • DNA

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The material of all living organisms, it stores the information, or blueprints, about every cell and is located in the genes. It is made up of two strands which form a double helix and are linked with hydrogen bonds. It was first described in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson.

  • DNA analyser

    Laboratory equipment for anaylsing DNA

  • DNA sequencer

    Machine that sequences DNA, used to sequence the bases that make up a small lenth of DNA (stores the information, or blueprints, of every cell and is located in the genes).

  • documents

    Use especially for recorded information regardless of medium or characteristics. In its broadest sense, however, can include any item amenable to cataloging and indexing, that is, not only written and printed materials in paper or microform versions but also nonprint media and, in some circumstances, three-dimensional objects or realia.

  • dog collar

    A collar for a dog's neck. Also an informal name for clerical collar, or close-fitting collars worn by men and women.

  • dolls

    Human or humanoid figurines, especially those used for play, and certain ones used for ceremonial, religious, or decorative purposes.

  • donkey engine

    A method of spraying antiseptic used by Joseph Lister, powered by hand and placed upon a tripod. The amount of carbolic acid that it delivered was so powerful that it had to be abandoned.

  • donor card

    A card indicating the consent of the holder to use his or her organs for transplant in the event of death.

  • door knob

    A form of door hardware that consists of a pair of knobs on opposite ends of a spindle used to release a door latch. Distinguished from "closet knobs," which have a knob on one end of the spindle and a rose or plate on the other.

  • door panel

    sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat and rectangular) section or component of a door

  • door plate (identifying artifact)

    Use for plates, usually of metal, placed on doors, usually of houses, apartments, or rooms, bearing the occupant's name.

  • doorplate

    A nameplate fastened to a door; indicates the person who works or lives there or a general notice.

  • doors

    Barriers which swing, slide, tilt, or fold to close a doorway, usually of solid and finished construction and usually leading to or separating interior spaces. Use also for similar features that close a container or a piece of case furniture. For barriers of less solid or finished construction, and usually separating two exterior spaces, use "gates."

  • doshas

    The three energies in Ayurveda medicine. When in balance with each other are believed to maintain good health and also determine personality.

  • dotchin

    A form of Chinese or Japanese steelyard scales with ivory beam and wooden banjo-shaped case.

  • double helix

    The name for the shape of two strands of DNA when bound together into a twisted helix.

  • douche

    Liquids (sea water, lemon juice, vinegar or shop-bought preparations) used to rinse the vagina before or after sexual activity.

  • downpipe

    A vertical pipe which brings rainwater to ground level from roof gutters or waste water from hoppers.

  • drawing - visual work

    Visual works produced by drawing, which is the application of lines on a surface, often paper, by using a pencil, pen, chalk, or some other tracing instrument to focus on the delineation of form rather than the application of color. This term is often defined broadly to refer to computer-generated images as well.

  • drawing board

    Tables with surfaces adjustable for elevation and angles of incline.

  • drawing instrument

    A tool or instrument used for creating technical drawings.

  • drawing pen nib

    The part of the drawing pen which comes in to contact with the writing surface in order to deposit ink.

  • dray

    A low, heavy cart without sides, used for haulage.

  • dressings

    Remedies and bandages used to dress or cover a sore, wound, or other lesion.

  • drill - tool

    Large machine or hand tool that is used for making holes in a variety of materials.

  • drink dispenser

    A device designed specifically for the easy dispensing of liquid to an ill individual, presumably one who is lying down.

  • drinking fountain

    Plumbing fixtures consisting of a water jet and often a shallow basin designed to provide potable water for human consumption.

  • drivers bag

    A bag supplied by the railway company to locomotive drivers to carry the tools and equipment required for him to carry our his duties.

  • drivers lamp

    A handlamp carried by the locomotive driver to enable him to inspect the locomotive in the dark and to give hand signals if necessary.

  • drivers lunch box

    A container, often made of metal and specially designed to withstand the heat and dirt found on the locomotive footplate, in which the driver keeps his packed lunch.

  • drivers tea can

    A metal flask intended to carry tea for the footplate crew of a locomotive, usually with a cup provided as the lid.

  • drivers tool bag

    A bag supplied by the railway company to locomotive drivers to carry the tools and equipment required for him to carry our his duties.

  • drop foot

    A condition where the foot and toes cannot be turned upwards, or at right angles to the leg. This results in an abnormal way of walking.

  • dropsy

    An accumulation of fluid in the body tissues which results in swelling.

  • drug

    Any animal, vegetable, or mineral substance used in the composition of medicines. They affect the structure or function of a living organism.

  • drug jar

    A (usually earthenware) container designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs.

  • dungarees

    Sturdy trousers or overalls, often made of blue denim.

  • dwarfism

    A condition characterized by being very short, but with standard body proportions. It occurs from an insufficient production of growth hormone.

  • dynamometer

    An apparatus for measuring force or power. In particular muscular effort of humans or animals, the power developed by a motor, or that needed to operate machinery. It commonly has a spring to be compressed or weight to be sustained by the force applied.

  • dynamometer car

    A coach adapted to carry instruments and recording devices for measuring locomotive performance when working a train on the line. Marshalled between the locomotive and the rest of the train.

  • dysentery

    Infectious disease with symptoms including diarrhoea, bleeding, and abdominal cramps. It spreads in contaminated food and water, especially in the tropics.

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