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Glossary

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F

  • face phantom

    An instrument used for teaching and practising eye operations in the early 1900s.

  • facsimile - reproduction

    Use for precise reproductions, usually in the same dimensions as the original, especially of books, documents, prints, and drawings. Today often reproduced photographically; in the past, reproduced by engraving or other printmaking process.

  • fairing

    Ceramic figure purchased at a fair, usually as a memento

  • fallopian tubes

    The pair of fine channels through which eggs pass from a woman’s ovaries to her uterus.

  • fan - costume accessory

    Hand-held impliment used to produce a current of air or that serve as purely decorative accessory; may be rigid or collapsible.

  • fares book

    A manual of fares, normally held in a booking office, showing the price of travel between stations for the various classes of passenger or ticket.

  • fares list

    A tariff of fares applicable from the current location.

  • feeding

    To provide with food or nourishment

  • feeding cup

    Specially shaped cup used to feed invalids who cannot sit up.

  • feeding funnel

    differs from 'feeding cup' as not necessarily used for feeding babies or invalids, sometimes used during cermonies and ritulas such as the feeding of chiefs during tattooing ceremonies, sometimes classed as a relgious object.

  • feeding tube

    A piece of flexible tubing passed through the oral pharynx and into the oesophagus and stomach, through which liquid food is fed. Used to feed patient or in some cases force feeding in case of hunger strikers.

  • female condom

    A barrier form of contraception. It is worn inside the vagina. A flexible ring at the closed end of the tube covers the cervix and holds it in place, while at the other end an open ring stays in place at the vaginal opening. Like the male condom it provides a protective barrier during sex and is used both as a contraceptive and to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

  • female menopause

    The time in a woman's life when ovulation and menstruation stop and the woman is no longer able to bear children. The menopause can occur at any age between the middle thirties and the middle fifties, but occurs most commonly between 45 and 55.

  • female urinal

    urinal used by women

  • femur

    The thigh bone. It is the longest bone in the human body.

  • fender

    Refers to a variety of formed components, often curved and of metal or wood, mounted or hung along the sides of land vehicles or watercraft, as over the wheels of road vehicles, to protect the vehicles and occupants from injury and splashing.

  • Fennings product

    An Alfred Fenning's product

  • Fennings' product

    Alfred Fennings opened a pharmacy in London in 1840 which sold treatments for serious illnesses. A ‘Fennings product’ is from this company, which distributed its wares across Britain.

  • fermentation

    A form of anaerobic respiration (respiration that does not need oxygen) occurring in certain micro-organisms, for example yeasts.

  • fertility

    The natural capacity to give birth.

  • fertility rites

    Rituals and ceremonies, usually with magical or religious overtones, which attempt to tame the unpredictable forces of nature to ensure a plentiful supply of food or the birth of healthy children or, very often, both. They may take the form of prayers, chants, dances and the performing of sacred dramas.

  • fever

    A rise in body temperature above normal. Fever usually occurs as a natural response to infection.

  • fibroid

    Muscle tumours of the uterus.

  • field camera

    A folding view camera that is usually made of wood, which is for use on location

  • field dressing

    A type of bandage carried by soldiers for immediate use in case of wounds.

  • field hospital

    A temporary hospital set up near a combat zone to provide emergency care for the wounded.

  • figured glass

    Use generally for glass used in architecture that is cut, embossed, sandblasted, or otherwise embellished.

  • filar micrometer

    A form of eyepiece micrometer in which spider's web thread of fine wire is used to delineate the item being measured. Usually consists of a viewing eyepiece, fine thread mounted on a framework slide moved by a micrometer screw with divided scale.

  • file - tool

    Steel hand tools with teeth or raised oblique ridges; used for scraping, redressing, or smoothing metal or wood.

  • film strip viewer

    A hand held device for viewing strips of imgages.

  • filter

    A porous device designed to block certain objects or substances whilst letting others through. Filters are often used to removed solids from a liquid or gas.

  • Finsen lamp

    Niels Ryberg Finsen was a Danish physician who pioneered the use of ultraviolet light – from a Finsen Lamp – in the treatment of a number of skin infections.

  • fire bar

    The cast iron units of a firegrate, designed to support burning coal and permit the ingress of air.

  • fire dog

    device of metal or ceramic intended to hold logs above the hearth or skewers above fire for cooking.

  • fire extinguisher

    Portable devices for immediate use in putting out a fire

  • fireless locomotive

    A small steam locomotive without a firebox, fed with steam from an external source and therefore suitable for use in high fire risk locations, etc.

  • firing shovel

    A short handled tool with rectangular metal blade used to convey coal into firebox.

  • first aid

    Treatment that is rendered initially for the care of an emergent condition. It is usually performed by a lay person to a sick or injured patient until definitive medical treatment can be accessed

  • first aid kit

    A kit designed to give help to an injured person until proper medical treatment is available

  • first day covers

    Use for envelopes, postcards, or other postal items of reasonable size with a new stamp or stamps bearing the postally applied marking 'First Day of Issue' and indicating the date and place of first official issue. DMM.

  • fish fork - place fork

    Forks having three or four tines, the outer tines are often wider and may have a curved point. Generally used with a conforming fish knife.

  • fish fork - serving utensil

    Large, broad four-tined forks used with a fish slice or with a serving knife to serve fish.

  • fish knife

    Small knives with a flat blade that is decoratively shaped and has no sharp edge; meant to be used with a conforming fish fork to eat fish.

  • fish van

    A railway van used for the carriage of fish, usually refrigerated and insulated.

  • fishing vessel

    Watercraft engaged in fishing

  • fishplate gauge

    A gauge for measuring the profile of a fishplate.

  • fishplate profile set

    A set of gauges for measuring the profile of fishplates.

  • fistula

    An abnormal passage, usually between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.

  • fixed signal

    A lineside signal which is always there, as opposed to a (portable) hand signal.

  • flannelgraph

    A piece of flannel as a base for paper or cloth-cut outs, used as a toy or teaching aid.

  • flask

    A bottle with a wide body and a thinner neck used in Chemistry. Traditionally made of glass, but more recently made from plastic.

  • flat file

    General-purpose tapered steel file used essentially in metalwork but also in working hardwood surfaces.

  • fleam

    A sharp instrument used for opening veins, lancing gums etc.

  • flicker book

    A book of images, which when flicked through in quick succession give the appearance of motion.

  • fluoroscope

    An X-ray device equipped with a fluorescent screen on which a patient's insides can be viewed in real time. The patient is constantly exposed to a low X-ray radiation, in contrast to a normal X-ray machine which uses a short burst of a higher level of radiation.

  • fluoroscopy

    The practice of shining a fluorescent back light through X-rays to create an image without developing X-ray photographs. Known as fluoroscopic images.

  • flute glass

    Tall, extremely narrow drinking glasses with a conical-shaped bowl that rests on a stem. Used for drinking wine, especially sparkling wines. For glasses with a shallow saucer-shaped bowl intended for drinking champagne use "champagne glasses."

  • fly paper plate

    A specifically designed ceramic plate used to hold fly paper.

  • fly swatter

    A device for killing insects that consists of a flat piece of perforated rubber or plastic or fine-mesh wire netting attached to a handle.

  • foetal heart rate monitoring

    Measuring the heart rate of the foetus during childbirth is important in modern, medicalised childbirth. The changing beats per minute rate is detected via an electronic foetal heart monitor. The rate can be observed during the birthing process and may prompt medical intervention.

  • foetal monitor

    Any piece of equipment used to monitor the foetus to ensure a healthy pregnancy.

  • foetus

    The name given to the embryo during the later stages of development. In human reproduction it refers to an unborn child from its eighth week of development.

  • fog flare lamp

    A kerosene filled lamp, with wadding extending from the vessel into a spout, with the wadding protruding to form a wick.

  • folder

    A folding cover or holder for loose papers.

  • folding bellows camera

    A camera that can be folded to a compact and rugged package when not in use.

  • folding rule

    Ruler composed of light strips of wood joined so that the individual pieces fold and usually pivot in more than one plane; most commonly in 2-foot lengths with four folds. Historically superseded by zigzag rules, which are generally longer and have strips that all fold, zigzag fashion, in a single plane and by metal tape rule.

  • foment can

    pan used to apply warmth to the body

  • food

    Any material that can be digested or absorbed by the body of a human or other animal and used as a source of energy or some essential nutrient, to build and replace tissue, or to relieve hunger.

  • food warmer

    Device used to keep food warm. Often achieved through tealight candles underneath a wire mesh on which food is placed in dishes.

  • foot warmer

    Object or clothing designed to keep feet warm.

  • footbridge

    A civil engineering structure enabling pedestrians to cross the railway lines.

  • footrest

    A support for the foot or feet.

  • footstool

    Small, low stool, to support one's feet.

  • footwarmer

    A metal cylinder filled with very hot water or chemicals at stations and placed on the floor of coaches not fitted with any heating system.

  • forceps

    A pliers-like medical instrument used to grasp tissue.

  • fork - flatware

    Articles of flatware having a handle with a shank terminating in two or more tines, used to manipulate food especially in serving and eating.

  • forks

    Articles of flatware having a handle with a shank terminating in two or more tines, used to manipulate food especially in serving and eating.

  • form

    Use with reference to works of art and architecture to mean the arrangement of visual elements such as line, mass, shape, or color.

  • form - document

    General term referring to documents, which have an established arrangement of different parts and often a fixed order of words.

  • forms (documents)

    Printed or typed documents with blank spaces for insertion of requested information. WCOL9.

  • fossil

    The remains of an animal or plant found in rocks.

  • fracture

    The breaking of a bone into two or more pieces

  • fragment

    Use for portions of something that are torn, broken off from, or dislocated from their original whole.

  • free pass

    A concessionary ticket permitting free travel.

  • freezing microtome

    An instrument in which tissue is frozen using ice salt or ether before being sliced in order to be examined under a microscope.

  • frigate

    Uses both for naval ships of the late 18th and early 19th centuries generally fully rigged on three masts and armed with guns on one or two decks and designed for various battle functions, and for a contemporary class of small, medium-speed warships designed primarily for escort duty and having antiair, antiship, and antisubmarine capabilities

  • fruit van

    A ventilated railway van used for the carraige of fresh fruit.

  • fullers earth

    An adsorbent clay that can be used to filter and purify animal or vegetable oils and greases.

  • fumigation

    A method of pest control in which an area is filled with pesticide gas in order to poison or suffocate the pests within.

  • fumigator

    An object used to disinfect or purify the air with fumes, often used to eradicate pest infestations from buildings.

  • fundraising

    The process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in-kind, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. Although fundraising typically refers to efforts to gather funds for non-profit organizations, it is sometimes used to refer to the identification and solicitation of investors or other sources of capital for-profit enterprises.

  • furnace

    An enclosed chamber or container used to burn biomass in a controlled manner to produce heat.

  • fuselage

    The complete central structure of aircraft, to which the wings, tail assemblies, and engines may be attached. In the early 20th century, the term was taken from French specifically to refer to the framework of the body of an airplane, particularly the girder-like backbone employed in airplane design; it has since come to mean the entire central structure of the aircraft.

  • fusible plug

    A lead plug in the firebox crown of a steam locomotive which melts if the water level in the boiler falls below the level of the firebox extinguishing the fire thus preventing boiler explosion.

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