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Glossary

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G

  • gallstone

    A solid mass formed in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol and bile salts.

  • Galton whistle

    An instrument for emitting high-pitched tones and ultrasound for determining the upper limits of the hearing range in humans and other animals

  • galvanism

    Any form of medical treatment that uses electricity.

  • galvanometer

    An instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents.

  • gas cylinder

    A cylinder in which pressurized gas is stored

  • gas gangrene

    Death and decay of wound tissue infected by a soil-based bacteria. Toxins produced by the bacterium cause decay of connective tissue and the generation of gas.

  • gas mask

    A respirator that contains a chemical air filter and is worn over the face as protection against toxic gases and aerosols

  • gastroenteritis

    A bacterial or viral infection caused by the inflammation of both the stomach and the small intestine.

  • gastro-intestinal surgery

    Any type of surgery that addresses problems with the stomach or small intestine.

  • gender

    Has come to refer to the socially constructed roles and differences between men and women; as opposed to 'sex' which refers to the biological distinctions between male and female.

  • gene

    Part of the nucleus of a cell that determines how our bodies function. Genes are passed from parents to children.

  • genetic diseases

    Diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, that are passed from parents to child and which have their origins in changes to DNA.

  • genetic engineering

    The techniques involved in altering the characteristics of one organism by inserting genes from another organism into its DNA.

  • genetic fingerprinting

    A technique which matches DNA sequences obtained from bodily fluids, in order to determine an individual's identity. Often used to determine possible genetic relations, or link a suspected criminal to a crime scene.

  • genetics

    Biological science which deals with the phenomena of heredity and the variation between progenitors and offspring. ERIC9.

  • genito-urinary medicine

    The branch of medicine dealing with the genital and urinary organs.

  • geodesic sensor net

    A large number of electrodes that are placed on a person's head. Used to record weak electrical signals of the brain.

  • geomantic compass

    A type of compass that is used in Feng-Shui (sometimes translated as geomancy). Feng-Shui is a traditional Chinese practise that aims to align energy in positive ways in living spaces and the landscape.

  • germ

    Tiny organisms that cause disease. 'Germ' is now a term that is applied loosely to many micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.

  • germ theory

    The theory that germs cause disease, often by infection through the air. The germ theory was formally proven by Robert Koch in 1875.

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