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Glossary

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G

  • gallstone

    A solid mass formed in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol and bile salts.

  • Galton whistle

    An instrument for emitting high-pitched tones and ultrasound for determining the upper limits of the hearing range in humans and other animals

  • galvanism

    Any form of medical treatment that uses electricity.

  • galvanometer

    An instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents.

  • gas burners

    Burners for the combustion of gas, usually with various arrangements of holes through which gas issues.

  • gas cylinder

    A cylinder in which pressurized gas is stored

  • gas gangrene

    Death and decay of wound tissue infected by a soil-based bacteria. Toxins produced by the bacterium cause decay of connective tissue and the generation of gas.

  • gas key

    A standard key used for unlocking the gas lamps in railway carriages in order to service and maintain them.

  • gas mask

    A respirator that contains a chemical air filter and is worn over the face as protection against toxic gases and aerosols

  • gas turbine train

    A train powered by gas turbine propelled motive power.

  • gastroenteritis

    A bacterial or viral infection caused by the inflammation of both the stomach and the small intestine.

  • gastro-intestinal surgery

    Any type of surgery that addresses problems with the stomach or small intestine.

  • gates

    Swinging or sliding barriers used to fill or close a gateway between two exterior spaces, often made of a grating or open framework or forming a heavy or rough structure.(W) Also, interior barriers resembling these. For barriers of more solid and finished construction and usually leading to interior spaces, use "doors."

  • gauge

    Use generally for devices designed to measure or otherwise determine the size, state, or mechanical accuracy of something.

  • gauge block

    Hardened steel block having two flat, parallel surfaces with the parallel distance between the surfaces marked to a guaranteed accuracy of a few millionths of an inch; used in manufacturing processes as a precise measuring standard.

  • gauge glass fitting

    The brass fitting holding the glass column indicating the level of the water in the boiler.

  • gender

    Has come to refer to the socially constructed roles and differences between men and women; as opposed to 'sex' which refers to the biological distinctions between male and female.

  • gene

    Part of the nucleus of a cell that determines how our bodies function. Genes are passed from parents to children.

  • genetic diseases

    Diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, that are passed from parents to child and which have their origins in changes to DNA.

  • genetic engineering

    The techniques involved in altering the characteristics of one organism by inserting genes from another organism into its DNA.

  • genetic fingerprinting

    A technique which matches DNA sequences obtained from bodily fluids, in order to determine an individual's identity. Often used to determine possible genetic relations, or link a suspected criminal to a crime scene.

  • genetics

    Biological science which deals with the phenomena of heredity and the variation between progenitors and offspring. ERIC9.

  • genito-urinary medicine

    The branch of medicine dealing with the genital and urinary organs.

  • geodesic sensor net

    A large number of electrodes that are placed on a person's head. Used to record weak electrical signals of the brain.

  • geodetic theodolite

    Large precision surveying instruments for measuring horizontal and vertical angles and consisting of a sighting telescope mounted that is free to rotate horizontally and vertically. Used for primary trigometrical survey of an area requiring great precision.

  • geomantic compass

    A type of compass that is used in Feng-Shui (sometimes translated as geomancy). Feng-Shui is a traditional Chinese practise that aims to align energy in positive ways in living spaces and the landscape.

  • germ

    Tiny organisms that cause disease. 'Germ' is now a term that is applied loosely to many micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.

  • germ theory

    The theory that germs cause disease, often by infection through the air. The germ theory was formally proven by Robert Koch in 1875.

  • girder wagon

    A specialised vehicle, usually part of a set, for carrying long and heavy loads such as girders.

  • globe - cartographic sphere

    Representations of the Earth, heavens, or another planet in the form of a ball

  • glove

    Coverings for the hand enclosing each finger separately, sometimes extending over the wrist and arm.

  • glucometer

    A medical device used to calculate the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It is commonly used by people with diabetes for home diagnosis and treatment.

  • Goa

    The capital of the colonial Portuguese empire in Asia and East Africa which gained its independence from the Portuguese in 1961.

  • goa stone

    A popular 17th century remedy for various fever-like diseases, a goa stone consisting of various drugs made up in the form of a hard ball, from which a portion was scraped as required.

  • goblet

    Drinking glass with a large bowl, of various shapes, resting on a stemmed foot.

  • goggles

    Protective coverings for the eyes having special lenses with shields at the sides and sometimes projecting rims or eye tubes; may consist of two lenses or a single frame and either held in place by two sidepieces extending around the ears or a strap that passes around the back of the head.

  • goitre

    An enlargement of the thyroid gland that is usually visible as a swelling of the neck. Simple goitre occurs when the thyroid gland is unable to meet the demands of the body.

  • goniometer

    An instrument for measuring angles, such as those made by joint movements.

  • gonorrhoea

    A sexually transmitted infection that affects the genital membranes of either sex. Symptoms include a yellowish discharge from the genitals.

  • goods waybill

    A label attached to goods in transit to indicate destination, consignee etc.

  • gorget

    An instrument used in the operation for removal of stones from the bladder. It is a director or guide with a wide groove.

  • gourd

    The ornamental, hard-shelled fruit of a vine.Hollowed gourds can be used as a number of things, including bowls or bottles.

  • gout

    A disease with painful inflammation of the joints caused by deposits of uric acid salts. It results in acute arthritis and chronic destruction of the joints.

  • gradient board

    A lineside board on which the gradient of the line is marked.

  • gramophone

    Gramophones operate similarly to "cylinder phonographs" but use, instead of a drum, a flat disc containing a spiral groove; a stylus is allowed to rest in the groove as the disc is rotated on a turntable, and the vibrations communicated to the stylus by the irregularities in the groove are transformed into sound vibrations.

  • grape scissors

    Implements used to cut clusters of grapes into small portions.

  • grape vine

    A vine or climbing shrub, of the genus Vitis, having small green flowers and lobed leaves, and bearing the fruit called grapes.

  • graphometer

    A surveying instrument used for angle measurements. Consisting of a semicircular limb divided into 180 degrees, the limb is subtended by the diameter with two sights at its ends. A magnetic compass is attached in the middle of the circular scale with a second pair of sights pivoting at the same centre. The device is mounted on a staff via a ball and socket joint.

  • graphs

    Representations of any sort of data by means of dots, lines, or bars; usually to illustrate relationships.

  • graters

    Any of various tools for grating and shredding food.

  • gravimeter

    An instrument for measuring variations in the gravitational field of the earth by detecting small differences in the weight of an object of constant mass.

  • grease gun

    A common workshop and garage tool used for applying lubrication.

  • greetings card

    A decorative card sent to send an expression of friendship or other sentiment.

  • groma

    An Ancient Roman surveying instrument consisting of a vertical staff with horizontal cross pieces mounted on a bracket. Each cross piece had a plumb line and plumb bob hanging vertically. Its main use was to survey straight lines, squares, and rectangles.

  • ground signal lamp case

    The outer casing for the removable paraffin lamp used for illuminating ground signals.

  • guards flag

    A coloured flag used by the railway guard to signal the driver to start or stop the train. Red is used to stop the train, green is used to start the train.

  • guards handlamp

    A handlamp carried by the railway guard used for giving hand signals in poor light, usually capable of showing red, green and white light.

  • guidebook

    Handbooks for the guidance of strangers or visitors in a district, town, building, etc., giving a description of the roads, places, or objects of interest to be found there.

  • guillotine

    A wooden machine with a heavy blade that slides vertically. Used for beheading – most famously during and after the French Revolution. Named after Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who sought to establish a method of execution that was applicable to all classes of people, and which minimised pain.

  • gunpowder van

    A railway van used for the carriage of gunpowder, usually constructed of steel for strength, safety and security.

  • gunpowder van key

    A security key used to lock vehicles carrying explosives.

  • gynaecology

    A branch of medicine dealing with the treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive system.

  • gyroscope

    A device to illustrate the dynamics of a rotating bod that consists of a rapidly rotating solid wheel mounted within a ring with its axis free to turn in any direction. Used, in modified form other other equipment, to provide a horizontal or vertical reference direction .

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