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Glossary

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G

  • gallstone

    A solid mass formed in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol and bile salts.

  • Galton whistle

    An instrument for emitting high-pitched tones and ultrasound for determining the upper limits of the hearing range in humans and other animals

  • galvanism

    Any form of medical treatment that uses electricity.

  • galvanometer

    An instrument for detecting and measuring small electric currents.

  • gas cylinder

    A cylinder in which pressurized gas is stored

  • gas gangrene

    Death and decay of wound tissue infected by a soil-based bacteria. Toxins produced by the bacterium cause decay of connective tissue and the generation of gas.

  • gas mask

    A respirator that contains a chemical air filter and is worn over the face as protection against toxic gases and aerosols

  • gastroenteritis

    A bacterial or viral infection caused by the inflammation of both the stomach and the small intestine.

  • gastro-intestinal surgery

    Any type of surgery that addresses problems with the stomach or small intestine.

  • gender

    Has come to refer to the socially constructed roles and differences between men and women; as opposed to 'sex' which refers to the biological distinctions between male and female.

  • gene

    Part of the nucleus of a cell that determines how our bodies function. Genes are passed from parents to children.

  • genetic diseases

    Diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, that are passed from parents to child and which have their origins in changes to DNA.

  • genetic engineering

    The techniques involved in altering the characteristics of one organism by inserting genes from another organism into its DNA.

  • genetic fingerprinting

    A technique which matches DNA sequences obtained from bodily fluids, in order to determine an individual's identity. Often used to determine possible genetic relations, or link a suspected criminal to a crime scene.

  • genetics

    Biological science which deals with the phenomena of heredity and the variation between progenitors and offspring. ERIC9.

  • genito-urinary medicine

    The branch of medicine dealing with the genital and urinary organs.

  • geodesic sensor net

    A large number of electrodes that are placed on a person's head. Used to record weak electrical signals of the brain.

  • geomantic compass

    A type of compass that is used in Feng-Shui (sometimes translated as geomancy). Feng-Shui is a traditional Chinese practise that aims to align energy in positive ways in living spaces and the landscape.

  • germ

    Tiny organisms that cause disease. 'Germ' is now a term that is applied loosely to many micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.

  • germ theory

    The theory that germs cause disease, often by infection through the air. The germ theory was formally proven by Robert Koch in 1875.

  • glove

    Coverings for the hand enclosing each finger separately, sometimes extending over the wrist and arm.

  • glucometer

    A medical device used to calculate the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It is commonly used by people with diabetes for home diagnosis and treatment.

  • Goa

    The capital of the colonial Portuguese empire in Asia and East Africa which gained its independence from the Portuguese in 1961.

  • goa stone

    A popular 17th century remedy for various fever-like diseases, a goa stone consisting of various drugs made up in the form of a hard ball, from which a portion was scraped as required.

  • goblet

    Drinking glass with a large bowl, of various shapes, resting on a stemmed foot.

  • goggles

    Protective coverings for the eyes having special lenses with shields at the sides and sometimes projecting rims or eye tubes; may consist of two lenses or a single frame and either held in place by two sidepieces extending around the ears or a strap that passes around the back of the head.

  • goitre

    An enlargement of the thyroid gland that is usually visible as a swelling of the neck. Simple goitre occurs when the thyroid gland is unable to meet the demands of the body.

  • goniometer

    An instrument for measuring angles, such as those made by joint movements.

  • gonorrhoea

    A sexually transmitted infection that affects the genital membranes of either sex. Symptoms include a yellowish discharge from the genitals.

  • gorget

    An instrument used in the operation for removal of stones from the bladder. It is a director or guide with a wide groove.

  • gourd

    The ornamental, hard-shelled fruit of a vine.Hollowed gourds can be used as a number of things, including bowls or bottles.

  • gout

    A disease with painful inflammation of the joints caused by deposits of uric acid salts. It results in acute arthritis and chronic destruction of the joints.

  • grape vine

    A vine or climbing shrub, of the genus Vitis, having small green flowers and lobed leaves, and bearing the fruit called grapes.

  • guillotine

    A wooden machine with a heavy blade that slides vertically. Used for beheading – most famously during and after the French Revolution. Named after Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who sought to establish a method of execution that was applicable to all classes of people, and which minimised pain.

  • gynaecology

    A branch of medicine dealing with the treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive system.

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