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Glossary

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L

  • label

    Pieces of paper, leather, fabric, or small tablets inscribed and affixed to something for identification or description. In the context of bookbinding, refers specifically to paper or other material separate from that used to cover a book, on which the author's name and the title are printed or engraved and glued to the spine or front board.

  • laboratory

    Rooms, buildings, or groups of buildings equipped with apparatus for scientific experiments or other research, testing, and investigations.

  • laboratory apparatus

    A term used to refer to any equipment commonly used in a scientific laboratory. Includes flasks, beakers, test tubes and measuring cylinders.

  • lacquer

    A varnish that dries by the process of evaporation to provide a hard, protective finish.

  • lactic

    relating to milk

  • lactometer

    A type of hydrometer for measuring lactose sugars in milk.

  • ladder

    A portable structure consisting of two long sides crossed by parallel rungs, used to climb up and down.

  • ladle

    Spoonlike utensil with a deep bowl and a relatively long handle used for lifting, conveying, or serving cream, soup, punch, or other liquid food.

  • lamp - lighting device

    Lighting device having a vessel to contain the source of illumination, such as grease or oil; also those that have a separate energy source to which they are connected, such as gas or electricity.

  • lamp bracket

    The vertical tongues of steel fitted at various points around the front and rear of railway vehicles to hold head lamps, discs and tail lamps.

  • lancet

    A surgical instrument of various forms, commonly sharp-pointed and two-edged, used in venesection (the act of opening a vein for bloodletting), and in opening abscesses.

  • lancets

    A surgical instrument of various forms, commonly sharp-pointed and two-edged. The lancet is used in venesection (the act of opening a vein for bloodletting), and in opening abscesses.

  • lantern - lighting device

    Lighting devices, fixed or portable, designed to protect and enclose the light source, usually with sides of glass, horn or pierced metal, allowing light to emerge and often having a supporting frame or carrying handle.

  • lantern slide

    Transparent positive images, hand-made or photographic, mounted on glass for projection, sizes typical encountered, 3 1/4 to 3 1/2 by 4 inches (85x90mm)

  • larva

    The newly hatched, wingless, often wormlike form of many insects before their transition to an adult form.

  • laryngeal syringe

    syringe used to apply medications and treatments to the larynx

  • laryngoscope

    An instrument used to examine the larynx

  • larynx

    An organ in the neck of mammals involved in protection of the trachea (windpipe) and sound production.

  • lathe

    A machine used for turning and shaping metal or wood.

  • laudanum

    A herbal preparation of opium. It is made by mixing ethanol with opium. In the 1800s, laudanum was prescribed by many doctors to reduce pain and aid sleep.

  • launches

    Use for the largest ships' boats during the 19th and 20th centuries, typically heavily built, beamy, and carvel-planked, originally used for carrying cargo and men and usually 16 feet to 34 feet in length, with a beam about one-third the length, and with a relatively straight stem and square stern; has come to be used for motorized small boats of the same general size and shape. When referring to the largest ships' boats of the 18th century and earlier, use "longboats."

  • laundry iron

    instrument, not metal

  • lavatory paper

    Paper for cleansing oneself after defacation or urination

  • lavatory seat cover

    Covers used to place over public toilet seats for personal hygiene.

  • laxative

    An agent that acts to encourage evacuation of the bowels

  • leaflet

    Use for small printed works consisting of one sheet folded and not stitched or bound. For larger printed works, but generally of fewer than 80 pages, often with paper covers, use "pamphlets."

  • lecture notes

    Use for notes made with reference to a lecture, both those from which the lecturer speaks, and those taken by people in attendance.

  • lectures

    Documents containing the text of expositions of a given subject delivered before an audience or class, especially for the purposes of instruction.

  • ledger

    Volumes of final entry in accounting in which are entered debits, credits, and all other money transactions under each individual account or heading.

  • leech

    A type of worm that possesses suckers at both ends of its body. Formerly widely used for letting blood, the medicinal leech may now be used following microsurgery to encourage the growth of new capillaries. Leeches are found in tropical forests, grasslands and in water.

  • leech box

    Box for containing and/or transporting leeches.

  • leech jar

    Jar for keeping leeches in with pierced cover

  • lenticular

    Referring to or shaped like a lentil, such as the lens of the eye

  • leper clapper

    A type of rattle that people with leprosy were forced to carry in the 1600s. The noise made by the clapper warned people to avoid the infected person.

  • leprosy

    A chronic disease that affects the skin, mucous membrane and nerves. It is now confined mainly to the tropics and is transmitted by direct contact. Previously a widely feared disease, leprosy is not highly infectious.

  • lesion

    An abnormal structural change in a body part

  • letter

    Pieces of correspondence that are somewhat more formal than memoranda or notes, usually on paper and delivered.

  • letter - correspondence

    Pieces of correspondence that are somewhat more formal than memoranda or notes, usually on paper and delivered.

  • letterheads

    Printed headings on stationery, especially business stationery, and usually giving the name and address of the business or institution.

  • letterpress

    The contents of an illustrated book other than the illustrations; printed matter relating to illustrations; printing raised from raised type, not from lithography or any other planographic process.

  • leucorrhoea

    A discharge of a white, yellowish, or greenish, viscid mucus, resulting from inflammation or irritation of the membrane lining the genital organs of the female

  • leukaemia

    A cancer of the blood or bone marrow. Leukaemia is caused by an abnormal growth in numbers of cells, usually white blood cells. It is a broad term covering a number of different disorders.

  • level

    An instrument by which to find a horizontal line or adjust something with reference to a horizontal line, such as used by builders & surveyors.

  • level crossing gate

    A gate capable of being closed across the road and/or railway at places where the road crosses the railway at the same level.

  • Leyden jar

    Earliest and simplest device for storing static electricity, developed c.1745 in Leyden, Holland. The original electrical capacitor, it consists of a foil-lined glass jar partly filled with water and closed with a cork through which protrudes a brass rod wired to the foil. To charge the jar, friction is applied to the tip of the rod

  • libation cup

    A libation is an offering of wine, milk, honey, or oil that was poured to honour the dead or to praise the gods.

  • lice comb

    Comb used to detect and remove head lice and their eggs from hair.

  • lids

    Covers which are usually hinged or otherwise attached.

  • ligature

    A thread or string for tying the blood vessels, particularly the arteries, to prevent bleeding. The word ‘ligature’ can also refer to the action or result of binding or tying, e.g. the ligature of an artery.

  • light meter

    Type of photometer that measures the intensity of incident and reflected visible light

  • linear dividing engine

    A machine for accurately dividing the linear scales of various measuring instruments, such as thermometers, and for producing glass graticules.

  • lining brush

    A thin paint brush used for painting the lines and insignia on vehicle bodies.

  • linoleum

    Durable floor coverings made primarily of linseed oil, with a filler of cork dust or wood flour, and flax, with pigments added to create the desired colors and patterns; also, similar floor coverings made with substitutes for the linseed oil or filler or both.

  • lipstick

    a stick of cosmetic colouring for the lips

  • liqueur glass

    Small drinking glasses, generally of 1- to 1 1/2-ounce capacity, intended for drinking cordials, liqueurs, and eaux-de-vie. They are usually in the form of wine glasses but smaller with a bowl resting on a tall stem or in the form of a beaker.

  • lithograph

    Prints made using the process of lithography - a method for printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface.

  • lithographs

    Prints made using the process of lithography.

  • lithotome

    instrument used for cutting the bladder in operations for removal of stones (calculous concretions); from Greek: lithos (stone) and thomos (cut)

  • lithotomy

    The operation of cutting stones from the hollow organs, such as the kidney or bladder.

  • lithotomy crutch

    to hold the patient in the lithotomy position

  • lithotomy instrument set

    Instrument set for performing lithotomies - The operation, art, or practice of cutting for stone in the bladder.

  • lithotomy staff

    The grooved director for the gorget, or knife, used in cutting for stone in the bladder

  • lithotrite

    a mechanical instrument used to crush urinary stones

  • lithotrity

    the operation of breaking a stone in the bladder into small pieces to be passed

  • lithotrity instrument set

    used to perform lithotrity

  • litmus paper

    Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichen. It is absorbed on to filter paper and used to test for acids and alkalis – indicated by a change in the colour of the litmus paper.

  • litter bin

    Containers for the disposal of dry waste or rubbish.

  • liver

    Organ that plays a major role in metabolism, digestion, and elimintation of substances in the body.In the warm-blooded animals the liver is usually of a dark reddish-brown colour. In man it is situated below the diaphragm, and is divided by fissures into five lobes. A human can last only 24 hours without liver function.

  • livery sample

    A sample of corporate livery, usually a painted panel, often used for paint matching.

  • lizard

    A broad group of reptile found on every continent; there are 20 families, c.3000 species. Most lizards have four limbs, external ears, and a tail. Many lizards can shed their tails in order to escape from predators, although this trait is not universal. Vision, including color vision, is particularly well developed in lizards, and most communicate with body language or bright colors on their bodies as well as via pheromones.

  • loading gauge (object)

    A lineside structure used for checking the height of loaded wagons to ensure that the load will not to foul lineside bridges, etc.

  • lobotomy

    A controversial surgical treatment to severe the nerves to the frontal lobe of the brain (responsible for attention, short-term memory and activities requiring planning and organization). It was used to treat severe mental illnesses but is now no longer used.

  • local anaesthetic

    A drug that reduces or removes sensations from one area of the body.

  • locomotive

    A powered vehicle used for hauling trains but not itself carrying any load other than its own fuel, etc. For load carrying motive power units see 'self-propelled rolling stock'.

  • locomotive bell

    A bell fitted to a locomotive to give warning of its approach. Seldom used in British practice (whistles being the norm) but some locomotives carried commemorative bells presented during visits to other countries.

  • locomotive cab

    The portion of a locomotive, usually enclosed, which accommodates the enginemen.

  • locomotive chimney

    The often aesthetically styled casting from which the exhaust of a steam locomotive emerges.

  • locomotive cylinder

    The component of a steam locomotive with which a portion of the heat energy in the steam is converted into mechanical work.

  • locomotive tender

    A separate vehicle attached to a steam locomotive which conveys its fuel and water supplies.

  • locomotive works plate

    A cast metal plate identifying the locomotive date and location of manufacture of the locomotive to which it affixed.

  • lodestone

    A piece of magnetic iron ore, which can act like a compass needle.

  • log book

    A book used to determine the distance a ship travels within a certain amount of time.

  • logarithmic scale

    A method of representing numbers (certainly positive and usually greater than or equal to 1) by points on a line.

  • long-sightedness

    A defect of the eye where images are produced behind the retina rather than on it. This causes objects that are further away from the viewer to appear blurred. Long-sightedness is usually treated with glasses or corrective surgery.

  • lorgnettes

    A type of spectacles usually hand held with a long ornate handle.

  • loudspeaker

    Electroacoustic device that converts an electrical signal into sound waves that are audible at a distance from the device.

  • low machine wagon

    A specially constructed wagon with low centre design to convey large machines within the loading gauge of the railway.

  • lower-body negative pressure box

    A device used to apply negative pressure to the lower body (from the chest downwards). Used to simulate the G force experienced by pilots and astronauts.

  • lozenge

    A small medicated sweet to be dissolved slowly in the mouth. Lozenges are intended to sooth and lubricate the throat.

  • LP record

    A type of long-playing record pressed in vinyl

  • lubricator

    A device designed to dispense lubricant to bearing and other working surfaces.

  • luggage label

    A label attached to luggage en route showing destination and ownership.

  • luggage trolley

    A wheeled hand cart for carrying passengers' luggage.

  • lumbago

    A term used to describe mild to severe lower back pain.

  • lunch box

    Small containers, usually of metal or plastic and with handles, for carrying one's lunch from home to school or work.

  • lung

    one of the pair of organs of respiration, situated in the chest cavity on either side of the heart and enclosed by a serous membrane (see plural).

  • lymph

    Clear, slightly yellowish fluid derived from the blood and similar in composition to plasma. Lymph conveys white blood cells and some nutrients to the tissues.

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