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M

  • magic bullet

    A remedy (drug or therapy or preventive) that cures or prevents a disease or number of diseases.

  • magnification

    The process of enlarging something in appearance, not in physical size.

  • magnifying glass

    Hand-held, simple or compound magnifying lens with low powers (x3-20) used to closely examine small objects

  • malaria

    Parasitic disease transmitted by certain kinds of mosquito. Malaria is characterized by fever and enlargement of the spleen. Each year, there are approximately 515 million cases of malaria, killing between one and three million people.

  • mandrake root

    The root of any plant in the Mandragora family. The resemblance of the root to a human led to a superstition that when pulled from the ground, the root would produce a shriek that would kill anyone who heard it.

  • mania

    A category of mental illness from the Middle Ages to the 1800s. Those with mania experienced uncontrollability, euphoric highs and bouts of excessive energy.

  • manikin

    Models of the human body used for teaching anatomy or demonstrating surgical operations.

  • manuscript

    A book, document, or other composition written by hand.

  • mask

    A covering worn on or held in front of the face for disguise, to amuse, terrify or to symbolise.

  • massage

    The rubbing or kneading of parts of the body especially to aid circulation, relax the muscles, or provide sensual stimulation.

  • massager

    Instrument used to give or accentuate impact of massage.

  • mastectomy

    The surgical removal of a breast or breasts.

  • materia medica

    A Latin medical term sometimes used to refer to medical substances.

  • measles

    Disease caused by a virus most commonly found in children. Measles is spread through airborne fluids. In roughly the last 150 years, measles has been estimated to have killed 200 million people worldwide.

  • measurement

    Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to some standard (unit of measurement), such as a meter or a kilogram. The act of measuring usually involves using a measuring instrument, such as a ruler, weighing scale, thermometer or speedometer which is calibrated to compare the measured attribute to a measurement unit. Metrology is the scientific study of measurement.

  • measuring cylinder

    piece of laboratory glassware used to accurately measure out volumes of chemicals for use in reactions. They are generally more accurate and precise for this purpose than flasks.

  • measuring device - instrument

    Device used to ascertain the value or extent of an object, with regard to size, volume, mass, position or comparison to a standard amount or property.

  • mechanical arm

    A false arm with the capability to replicate natural functions such as gripping.

  • mechanical leech

    A mechanical device that promotes the flow of blood through surgical wounds. It was used to replicated the effects of having a real leech attached to the body but without the risk of infection.

  • medal

    Small pieces of metal, usually gold, silver, or bronze, bearing a relief design on one or both sides and having a commemorative purpose; not used as a medium of exchange. Medals may also be created to commemorate individuals or events or even as works of artistic expression in their own right.

  • medical education

    Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i.e., medical school and internship) or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship.)

  • medical jurisprudence

    the study or practice of the legal aspects of medicine, now known as forensic medicine

  • medical statistics

    Data concerning all elements of health and disease, e.g. the number of people with a certain disease.

  • medicine bottle

    Bottle of varying size, shape, and style made for use by an apothecary. For bottle labelled with the names of standard medicine, use "apothecary bottles."

  • medicine chest

    Small chests fitted for bottles and intended to hold medical supplies; of a type made in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

  • medicine glass

    Glass made to a certain standard used to administer medicine.

  • meditation

    A mental and emotional state sometimes described as concentrated relaxation, in which the meditating person empties the mind of troubling thoughts and feels at peace with others

  • melancholia

    A category of mental illness from the Middle Ages to the 1800s. Melancholia expressed itself as dejection, anguish, sensations of mistrust, anxiety and trepidation with some hallucinations.

  • memento

    An object kept as a reminder or souvenir of a person or an event

  • memento mori

    Symbols intended to remind the viewer of death. Memento mori are often objects such as skulls or hourglasses, but can also be written inscriptions.

  • memorabilia

    used for objects connected with a memorable event

  • meningitis

    A severe medical condition that can come in both viral and bacterial form. Meningitis causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include headache, fever, nausea, stiffness of the neck and an aversion to light.

  • menorrhagia

    abnormally heavy bleeding at menstruation

  • menstrual cycle

    The stage during which the female body prepares for pregnancy. The cycle consists of the thickening of the uterus lining and the release of an egg into the uterus from the ovaries. If the egg is not fertilized, the thickened lining dissolves and is released as a 'period'. In humans, the average cycle length is 28 days, and occurs in females who have reached puberty.

  • Mental health and illness

    Mental health is the term used to describe a level of emotional wellbeing, or the absence of a mental disorder. The World Health Organisation describes mental health as "A state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community."

  • mental illness

    Who were the `mentally ill’? We use this phrase to reflect the historical descriptions of individuals with a variety of behaviours, mental health problems and pathologies. Historically, the concept of ‘ madness’ or ‘insanity’ was used to describe people who may have had what we would now consider psychiatric disorders. It often also included those showing symptoms of syphilis, epilepsy, depression, or in some cases merely behaviour considered to be eccentric or outside commonly accepted norms.

  • mercurial air holder

    Device that measures the amount of air a person releases when breathing out.

  • meridians

    The main channels of energy flow (qi) in Chinese medicine. There are 12 meridians in total.

  • Mesmerism

    Based on the theories of Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). Claimed he could heal people based on his theory of animal magnetism. This fluid flowed through living things but when it became blocked, it caused disease. Treatment was holding magnets over specific parts of the body. His ideas were unfounded.

  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous bacterium that is becoming increasingly common. It is resistant to known antibiotics and so is difficult to treat. Hospital patients are at particular risk of infection, as a result of a weakened immune systems or open wounds. Initial symptoms include small red bumps, which develop into painful boils.

  • methylpentynol

    sedative used to calm the nerves

  • methylphenidate

    generic name for Ritalin

  • microbiology

    Branch of biology that deals with micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and their effects.

  • micro-organism

    A tiny single-celled living organism too small to be seen by the naked eye. Micro-organisms that cause disease are called bacteria.

  • microscope

    Instrument that provides a magnified view of an object being studied usually by optical means. Electrons, X-rays and ultra-violet light can be used instead of visible light

  • microscopical preparation

    slides prepared for examination under the microscope

  • microscopy

    The use of microscopes to study objects or samples. The three major types of microscopy are optical, electron and scanning probe microscopy.

  • microsurgery

    Reconstructive surgery on small body parts. Microsurgery is performed under magnification using delicate instruments and precise techniques.

  • microtome

    An instrument used to cut thin sections of biological material so that they can be examined under a microscope.

  • midwife

    A person, usually a woman who assists during childbirth. Historically, many midwives learnt through experience rather than formal training.

  • midwifery

    The medical speciality for women who help during childbirth, as well as the period before and immediately afterwards.

  • military medal

    A military medal is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. They are designed to be worn on military uniform.

  • mill

    A machine or device that reduces a solid or coarse substance into pulp or minute grains by crushing, grinding, or pressing

  • mineral

    In nutrition, naturally occuring substances that are an important dietary element

  • minim measure

    used to measure a minim - one sixteenth of a drachm, equivalent to one drop of water; unit of volume , specifically 1/60th of a fluidram or 1/480th of a fluid ounce. Used 1824-1963 in the United Kingdom; 1963 Weights and Measures Act provided for the abolition of the minim

  • mirror - furnishing

    Objects with a highly polished surface, often framed, which are designed to reflect images.

  • miscarriage

    A miscarriage is where a pregnancy ends before 24 weeks. Miscarriages occur in between ten and twenty per cent of all pregnancies.

  • mitral valve

    a valve in the heart consisting of two cusps attached to the walls at the opening between the left atrium and left ventricle. It allows blood to pass from the atrium to the ventricle, but prevents any backward flow.

  • MMR vaccine

    Combined vaccination for Measles, Mumps and Rubella (German measles). It is given to children aged 13 months, with a booster dose at 3-5 years. The vaccine is widely used. In the UK, the MMR vaccine was controversially but incorrectly linked with autism.

  • moccasins

    Heelless footwear made entirely of soft leather, as deerskin, with the sole brought up to form part or all of the upper portion covering the foot, and with a back seam; worn originally by indigenous peoples of North America. Also, shoes of similar construction, with hard sole and heel attached, made of soft or hard leather or leatherlike material.

  • model - representation

    Use for a scaled representation of an object or structure, usually three-dimensional. The item is often idealised or modified to make it conceptually easier to understand.

  • molecular biology

    The study of the structure and function of large molecules associated with living organisms, particularly proteins and the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. OXFSCI.

  • molecular model

    a physical model that represents molecules and their processes and structures

  • molecule

    One of the fundamental units forming a chemical compound; the smallest part of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction

  • monaural stethoscope

    An instrument used to listen to sounds produced by the human body.

  • monocular microscope

    Microscope with a single viewing eyepiece, as distinct from binocular or stereomicroscopes. It should be noted that monocular microscopes can be fitted with a binocular eyepiece to give pseudo-stereo views

  • mood stabilisers

    Drugs such as lithium carbonate used in the treatment of bipolar disorders

  • morphine

    A painkilling drug derived from opium. Morphine is used in hospitals around the world due to its relative lack of side effects.

  • mortality

    The number of deaths which occur in a given area or period, from a particular disease, etc.; the average frequency of death; death rate.

  • mortar

    Cup-shaped vessel in which drugs or herbal mixtures are pounded with a pestle.

  • mortsafe

    A stone or iron vault that protects a coffin or grave. Most common in the 1800s, its invention was supposedly a response to grave-robbing by medical students searching for bodies to dissect.

  • mortuary cross

    small cross made of lead used in England during the Great Plague of 1348, to denote a plague death

  • mosquito net

    A see-through net to keep off mosquitoes. The mesh used is fine enough to exclude these insects, but it does not completely impede the flow of air. Mosquito nets are often used where malaria or other insect-borne diseases are common, especially as a tent-like covering over a bed. For effectiveness, it is important that the netting not have holes or gaps large enough to allow insects to enter.

  • mourning

    Trial term S&H

  • mourning clothes

    Articles of clothing worn as an expression of grief and remembrance by those mourning the death of a loved one. Although different clothes are worn in different cultures, the most common custom is the wearing of very dark and sombre clothing.

  • mouth dilator

    Instrument used to keep the mouth open during surgery.

  • mouth gag

    device for preventing the mouth from being closed which permits the passage of the hand or an easily damaged piece of equipment such as a rubber stomach tube.

  • moxibustion

    a therapeutic technique used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in which acupuncture points are stimulated by the application of burning moxa. Moxa is prepared from the ground young leaves of plants of the genus Artemisia – particularly Artemisia vulgaris. Slow burning moxa can be applied directly to the skin or burned on the head of an acupuncture needle in a combination therapy.

  • moxibustion helmet

    Clay 'Helmet' device used for Helmet Moxibustion, also known as Dream or Earthern Mortar Moxibustion, to allow burning moxa to be supported on a patients head, for use by blind practitioners in Japan

  • MRI

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A technique for producing high quality images of internal organs and tissues. MRI uses radio waves to achieve its results. It is particularly effective in detecting cancers.

  • MRI body scanner

    A machine used to perform Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans upon patients. The machine allows the process to take place without exposing the patient to harmful radiation.

  • mug

    Drinking vessels, often cylindrical, resting on a flat base without a stem and having a single handle and sometimes a lid.

  • multiple sclerosis

    A chronic disease of the nervous system affecting young and middle-aged adults. Multiple sclerosis (MS) can lead to almost any brain-related symptom, such as loss of feeling or involuntary movement.

  • multivitamin

    A mixture of many vitamins, often taken in pill form.

  • mummy

    A corpse which has been preserved through natural or artificial methods, often for religious reasons.

  • mumps

    Mumps is an infectious disease spread by airborne droplets from the nose or throat. Its symptoms include swelling of the glands in the neck, making it difficult to eat or swallow. The disease is most common in children, but if contracted in adults the effects can be more severe. An effective vaccine exists and is given in the UK as part of the MMR jab.

  • muscular dystrophy

    Diseases with symptoms of gradual muscle weakening. These conditions are often hereditary – passed from parents to children.

  • music

    The art concerned with the combining of vocal or instrumental sounds in measured time to communicate emotions, ideas, or states of mind, usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony.

  • musk

    a strong-smelling reddish-brown substance which is secreted by the male musk deer for scent-marking and is an important ingredient in perfumery.

  • mustard gas

    A poisonous gas first used in warfare by the German Army in 1917 at Ypres, France. The symptoms of mustard gas poisoning include mustard-coloured blisters and severe burns.

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