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Glossary

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M

  • medical education

    Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor (i.e., medical school and internship) or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency and fellowship.)

  • medical jurisprudence

    the study or practice of the legal aspects of medicine, now known as forensic medicine

  • medical statistics

    Data concerning all elements of health and disease, e.g. the number of people with a certain disease.

  • medicine bottle

    Bottle of varying size, shape, and style made for use by an apothecary. For bottle labelled with the names of standard medicine, use "apothecary bottles."

  • medicine chest

    Small chests fitted for bottles and intended to hold medical supplies; of a type made in the 18th and early 19th centuries.

  • medicine glass

    Glass made to a certain standard used to administer medicine.

  • meditation

    A mental and emotional state sometimes described as concentrated relaxation, in which the meditating person empties the mind of troubling thoughts and feels at peace with others

  • melancholia

    A category of mental illness from the Middle Ages to the 1800s. Melancholia expressed itself as dejection, anguish, sensations of mistrust, anxiety and trepidation with some hallucinations.

  • memento

    An object kept as a reminder or souvenir of a person or an event

  • memento mori

    Symbols intended to remind the viewer of death. Memento mori are often objects such as skulls or hourglasses, but can also be written inscriptions.

  • memorabilia

    used for objects connected with a memorable event

  • meningitis

    A severe medical condition that can come in both viral and bacterial form. Meningitis causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include headache, fever, nausea, stiffness of the neck and an aversion to light.

  • menorrhagia

    abnormally heavy bleeding at menstruation

  • menstrual cycle

    The stage during which the female body prepares for pregnancy. The cycle consists of the thickening of the uterus lining and the release of an egg into the uterus from the ovaries. If the egg is not fertilized, the thickened lining dissolves and is released as a 'period'. In humans, the average cycle length is 28 days, and occurs in females who have reached puberty.

  • Mental health and illness

    Mental health is the term used to describe a level of emotional wellbeing, or the absence of a mental disorder. The World Health Organisation describes mental health as "A state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community."

  • mental illness

    Who were the `mentally ill’? We use this phrase to reflect the historical descriptions of individuals with a variety of behaviours, mental health problems and pathologies. Historically, the concept of ‘ madness’ or ‘insanity’ was used to describe people who may have had what we would now consider psychiatric disorders. It often also included those showing symptoms of syphilis, epilepsy, depression, or in some cases merely behaviour considered to be eccentric or outside commonly accepted norms.

  • mercurial air holder

    Device that measures the amount of air a person releases when breathing out.

  • meridians

    The main channels of energy flow (qi) in Chinese medicine. There are 12 meridians in total.

  • Mesmerism

    Based on the theories of Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). Claimed he could heal people based on his theory of animal magnetism. This fluid flowed through living things but when it became blocked, it caused disease. Treatment was holding magnets over specific parts of the body. His ideas were unfounded.

  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is a dangerous bacterium that is becoming increasingly common. It is resistant to known antibiotics and so is difficult to treat. Hospital patients are at particular risk of infection, as a result of a weakened immune systems or open wounds. Initial symptoms include small red bumps, which develop into painful boils.

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