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Glossary

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  • objective

    The lens in a microscope that is nearest to the object being examined.

  • obsidian

    A black or very dark volcanic rock. Obsidian was shattered into very sharp blades and sometimes used as a tool for working marble on a small scale.

  • obstetrical forceps

    An instrument used to assist the delivery of a foetus, usually during a birth where complications have developed. Numerous variations have been developed over time. The fundamental design has two separate looped blades with handles. These interlock to form a grasping instrument.

  • obstetrical phantom

    A life size model of a female pelvic region used to train medical students in child delivery.

  • obstetrical vectis

    A simple instrument resembling a single blade of an obstetric forceps. It is used during childbirth to assist the delivery of an obstructed foetus. Also known as ‘levers’.

  • obstetrics

    A branch of medicine dealing with the care of women. This care occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, and the period of recovery from childbirth.

  • occipital crochet

    Instrument used to measure the occipital bone at the back of the head.

  • oesophagus

    The oesophagus connects the throat to the stomach. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.

  • oestrogen

    A female hormone. Oestrogen is first produced by a girl at puberty. It regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy. Oestrogen is present in males, but in very low levels.

  • oil bottle

    bottle for perfumed oil

  • ointment pot

    Container for ointment - a smooth greasy healing preparation usually applied to the skin.

  • ophthalmic instrument

    An instrument used in eye surgery.

  • ophthalmic instrument set

    Group of instruments used by surgeons to perform ophthalmic operations, which are operations that deal with the visual pathways (usually the eyes or brain)

  • ophthalmology

    The branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways (usually the eyes or the brain).

  • ophthalmoscope

    An instrument for viewing the interior of the eye, particularly the retina. Light is shone into the eye via a mirror (usually concave) and then examined with or without the aid of a lens. Invented by by Hermann Von Helmholtz in 1850

  • opium

    A drug derived from the opium poppy. It has been used to cause sleep and provide pain relief for many centuries.

  • opium pipe

    An opium pipe is a pipe designed for the vaporization and inhalation of opium. True opium pipes allow for the drug to be vaporized while being heated over a special oil lamp known as an opium lamp. It is thought that this manner of "smoking" opium began in the seventeenth century when a special pipe was developed that vaporized opium instead of burning it.

  • optical instruments

    A device used to observe and/or measure light. It can give an enhanced image for viewing or scientific analysis.

  • optical puzzle

    puzzle that is solved using an optical illusion

  • optical toy

    Toys that provide visual stimulus and entertainment through a variety of optical principles, such as persistence of vision, image projection or other optical effects and demonstrations.

  • optics

    A branch of physics that deals with the properties and behaviour of both visible and invisible light. The field includes the generation, transmission, and detection or perception of light.

  • optometer

    An instrument for measuring the refractive properties of the eye

  • optometry

    The professional practice of eye and vision care. Optometry includes the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.

  • oral contraceptive pill

    A drug containing hormones, taken to stop pregnancy.

  • oral rehydration salts

    A cheap and effective treatment for dehydration. The salts are usually a solution of sugar and salts taken orally. They are used in the developing world to save children from death by diarrhoea.

  • orthopaedic boot

    Type of footwear for the easing or correction of club foot or other deformities of the feet.

  • orthopaedic equipment

    Relates to equipment for the treatment of physical deformities,and surgical treatment of the musculoskeletal system.

  • orthopaedic saw

    A saw used for orthopaedic surgery. Orthopaedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with injuries to, or conditions involving, the musculoskeletal system.

  • orthopaedic support

    A support for part of the human body such as the back or a leg

  • orthopaedics

    The branch of medicine concerned with the preservation and restoration of the muscular and skeletal systems in the body.

  • orthoptoscope

    An instrument for assessing the degree to which a person uses both eyes. It is also used to measure the angle of a squint.

  • Ottoman empire

    Former Turkish empire that controlled much of south east Europe, the Middle East and North Africa between the 14th and 20th centuries.

  • ovariotomy

    The operation of removing one or both of the ovaries

  • ovocyclin

    form of estrogen hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

  • oxytetracycline

    an antibiotic (penicillin) administered by mouth to treat infections caused by a wide variety of bacteria; Terramycin is a trade mark of Pfizer Products Inc.:oxytetracyline and derivatives thereof, and substances containing oxytetracyline or derivatives thereof, all prepared for use as antibiotics, first registered in 1954

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