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Glossary

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  • objective

    The lens in a microscope that is nearest to the object being examined.

  • obsidian

    A black or very dark volcanic rock. Obsidian was shattered into very sharp blades and sometimes used as a tool for working marble on a small scale.

  • obstetrical forceps

    An instrument used to assist the delivery of a foetus, usually during a birth where complications have developed. Numerous variations have been developed over time. The fundamental design has two separate looped blades with handles. These interlock to form a grasping instrument.

  • obstetrical phantom

    A life size model of a female pelvic region used to train medical students in child delivery.

  • obstetrical vectis

    A simple instrument resembling a single blade of an obstetric forceps. It is used during childbirth to assist the delivery of an obstructed foetus. Also known as ‘levers’.

  • obstetrics

    A branch of medicine dealing with the care of women. This care occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, and the period of recovery from childbirth.

  • occipital crochet

    Instrument used to measure the occipital bone at the back of the head.

  • octant

    Reflecting navigational instruments used for measuring the altitude of celestial bodies and having an arc of 1/8 of a circle, but due to their reflecting properties can measure up to 90 degrees; invented in the 1730s and used into the 19th century when superseded by sextants.

  • oesophagus

    The oesophagus connects the throat to the stomach. In humans and other vertebrates it is a muscular tube lined with mucous membrane.

  • oestrogen

    A female hormone. Oestrogen is first produced by a girl at puberty. It regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy. Oestrogen is present in males, but in very low levels.

  • oil bottle

    bottle for perfumed oil

  • oil dispenser

    A container used to carry oil and to apply it to any areas requiring lubrication.

  • oil feeder can

    A long thin container used to carry oil and for applying it to areas requiring lubrication where access is limited.

  • oil lamp

    Lamp designed to burn oil as fuel, typically with a reservoir for holding the oil and an opening from which a wick can be extended.

  • oil painting

    The art or practice of producing creative works in oil paint.

  • oil painting - visual work

    Creative work in the medium of oil paint.

  • oil tank wagon

    A railway vehicle dedicated to the carriage of fuel oil.

  • ointment pot

    Container for ointment - a smooth greasy healing preparation usually applied to the skin.

  • omnibus

    A long motor vehicle for passengers; a bus.

  • ophthalmic instrument

    An instrument used in eye surgery.

  • ophthalmic instrument set

    Group of instruments used by surgeons to perform ophthalmic operations, which are operations that deal with the visual pathways (usually the eyes or brain)

  • ophthalmic lens

    lenses for spectacles, devices to compensate for defective vision or to protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like, consisting usually of two lenses set in a frame that includes a nosepiece for resting on the bridge of the nose and which may also have two sidepieces extending over or around the ears.

  • ophthalmology

    The branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways (usually the eyes or the brain).

  • ophthalmoscope

    An instrument for viewing the interior of the eye, particularly the retina. Light is shone into the eye via a mirror (usually concave) and then examined with or without the aid of a lens. Invented by by Hermann Von Helmholtz in 1850

  • opium

    A drug derived from the opium poppy. It has been used to cause sleep and provide pain relief for many centuries.

  • opium pipe

    An opium pipe is a pipe designed for the vaporization and inhalation of opium. True opium pipes allow for the drug to be vaporized while being heated over a special oil lamp known as an opium lamp. It is thought that this manner of "smoking" opium began in the seventeenth century when a special pipe was developed that vaporized opium instead of burning it.

  • optical instruments

    A device used to observe and/or measure light. It can give an enhanced image for viewing or scientific analysis.

  • optical puzzle

    puzzle that is solved using an optical illusion

  • optical quadrant - measuring device

    Instrument for measuring altitude, usually consisting of a graduated arc of 90 degrees, a pair of optical sights, and a plumb bob.

  • optical toy

    Toys that provide visual stimulus and entertainment through a variety of optical principles, such as persistence of vision, image projection or other optical effects and demonstrations.

  • optics

    A branch of physics that deals with the properties and behaviour of both visible and invisible light. The field includes the generation, transmission, and detection or perception of light.

  • optometer

    An instrument for measuring the refractive properties of the eye

  • optometry

    The professional practice of eye and vision care. Optometry includes the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.

  • oral contraceptive pill

    A drug containing hormones, taken to stop pregnancy.

  • oral rehydration salts

    A cheap and effective treatment for dehydration. The salts are usually a solution of sugar and salts taken orally. They are used in the developing world to save children from death by diarrhoea.

  • order

    The condition in which each thing is clearly distinguished and properly disposed with reference to other things, and performs its proper function.

  • order of service

    A document outlining the order of events in a service. Usually used in church related ceremonies.

  • orders

    Documents containing directives or commands issued by a military superior to a subordinate.

  • orrery

    Mechanical models of the solar system that demonstrate the movements of some or all of the planets around the sun, sometimes also of moons around their planets, in their correct relative periods, by means of an elaborate, usually clockwork, system. For the buildings housing devices used to project celestial images or for the mechanisms themselves, use "planetaria."

  • orthopaedic boot

    Type of footwear for the easing or correction of club foot or other deformities of the feet.

  • orthopaedic equipment

    Relates to equipment for the treatment of physical deformities,and surgical treatment of the musculoskeletal system.

  • orthopaedic saw

    A saw used for orthopaedic surgery. Orthopaedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with injuries to, or conditions involving, the musculoskeletal system.

  • orthopaedic support

    A support for part of the human body such as the back or a leg

  • orthopaedics

    The branch of medicine concerned with the preservation and restoration of the muscular and skeletal systems in the body.

  • orthoptoscope

    An instrument for assessing the degree to which a person uses both eyes. It is also used to measure the angle of a squint.

  • Ottoman empire

    Former Turkish empire that controlled much of south east Europe, the Middle East and North Africa between the 14th and 20th centuries.

  • ovariotomy

    The operation of removing one or both of the ovaries

  • overalls (main garments)

    One-piece garments consisting of trousers with a bib and having straps extending from the bib to the back. For one-piece garments consisting of a trouserlike portion and a full top with or without sleeves worn over other garments for protection use "coveralls."

  • overcoat

    A heavy coat to be worn over ordinary clothing

  • ovocyclin

    form of estrogen hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

  • oxytetracycline

    an antibiotic (penicillin) administered by mouth to treat infections caused by a wide variety of bacteria; Terramycin is a trade mark of Pfizer Products Inc.:oxytetracyline and derivatives thereof, and substances containing oxytetracyline or derivatives thereof, all prepared for use as antibiotics, first registered in 1954

  • oyster fork

    Forks, similar in form to pickle forks, used for eating oysters and similar shellfish, usually slender with a long handle and three or four pointed tines.

  • ozonesonde

    An ozonesonde is a lightweight instrument connected to a conventional balloon-borne meteorological radiosonde. As the instrument package ascends through the atmosphere, the ozonesonde radio-transmits pressure, temperature and humidity ozone and standard meteorological quantities data to a ground receiving station.

  • ozonometer

    An instrument for ascertaining the amount of ozone in the atmosphere

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