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  • pacemaker

    An abbreviation for ‘cardiac pacemaker’. It is a small device implanted in the heart that consists of electrodes. The electrodes emit electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart.

  • packet

    A small package or parcel, usually containing an object or objects.

  • paediatrics

    The branch of medicine dealing with the medical care of children, infants and adolescents. The patient age limit is usually 14-18, depending on the country. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a paediatrician.

  • painting

    Creative work in the medium of oil paint.

  • pamphlet

    Complete, nonperiodical printed works generally of fewer than 80 pages, often with a paper cover, sometimes short treatises on arguments or topics of current interest. For smaller printed works, of one sheet folded and not stitched or bound, use "leaflets."

  • pandemic

    An epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.

  • pannier

    A large basket, sometimes arranged in pairs and carried on the shoulders or, commonly, on a motorcycle or bicycle.

  • pannikin

    Small earthenware or now metal drinking vessels.

  • pap boat

    A small receptacle for feeding pap to infants and invalids. Boat shaped container with one end having an extending lip for placing the mouth.

  • paralysis

    The loss of function in one or more muscle groups. It causes loss of mobility and feeling.

  • parasite

    An organism which obtains food and shelter from another organism. The second organism is known as the host. The host is harmed in some way by the parasite. Examples of human parasites include the tape worm and the head louse.

  • paratyphoid fever

    A prolonged illness commonly caused by a form of salmonella. It is similar to typhoid fever but less severe.

  • parturition

    The act or process of giving birth to a child

  • parturition chair

    Chair used during parturition, a seat in which a mother may give birth to her child

  • pastille

    A small medicated or flavoured tablet.

  • pastille burner

    used to burn substances with deodorising or fumigating properties

  • patent

    Grants made by a government to an inventor, assuring the inventor the sole right to make, use, and sell the invention for a certain period of time.

  • pathological anatomy

    The branch of anatomy concerned with the structural changes of the body that accompany disease. Pathological anatomy became central to medical research in the 1800s.

  • pathology

    The branch of medicine concerned with disease, especially its structure and effects on the body.

  • patient history

    The case history and background of a medical patient. Knowing what illnesses the patient has had can help a doctor make a diagnosis about their current condition.

  • patient trolley

    used to transport patients between wards and departments

  • patron saint

    A saint believed to protect or guide a place or particular group of people.

  • pen - drawing and writing

    Hand-held instrument for writing or drawing with a colored fluid such as ink. A pen generally comprises a handle or holder and a pointed tip for distributing the fluid on the drawing surface. The term may also refer to an instrument for machine-controlled writing or drawing with ink.

  • pendant

    Hanging articles of jewellery, usually suspended from a necklace, but also includes Renaissance examples fastened to the sleeve often worn as decorative ornaments; can also be an article of devotional, magical, or mourning jewelry which then may sometimes be concealed under clothing.

  • penicillin

    The first antibiotic drug to treat infections which is made from the mould penicillium. Its discovery is attributed to Alexander Fleming in 1928.

  • penicillium mould

    A collective growth of penicillium caused by bacteria. This was how penicillin was first discovered and grown by Alexander Fleming.

  • percussion

    Practice where a doctor taps on parts of the patient’s body with his fingers or an instrument called a plessor. The resulting sounds and vibrations reveal the presence of fluid or tissue that has hardened.

  • percussor

    A small hammer, usually with soft rubber head, used to tap the body directly, in percussion of the chest or other part.

  • perfusion pump

    used for artifical perfusion

  • period

    Common term for vaginal bleeding, which happens once a month as part of a female's menstrual cycle. Periods usually last from one to five days and begin when a girl reaches puberty.

  • periodical

    A magazine or journal that is published at various intervals.

  • Personal Information Carrier

    A biometric card containing medical history and personal details of the carrier.

  • personal weigher

    weighing machine or device specifically for determing the weight of an individual person, usually but not always in a domestic environment. Characterised by weighing platform or chair, based on the steelyard lever principle (Distinct from bathroom scales)

  • pessary

    An object placed in the vagina and used to deliver medicine, as a contraceptive or as a muscle support.

  • pestle

    An elongated piece of hard material usually made of stone. A pestle is used for grinding pigments, herbs, spices or other materials in a mortar.

  • Petri dish

    A shallow dish used in science to grow micro-organisms. A Petri dish is circular, transparent and has a lid.

  • pH and blood gas analyser

    A machine used to detect the pH level of blood. The pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide can also be measured.

  • phage typer

    A machine used to identify phages - a virus that attacks bacteria.

  • phallus

    An object shaped like a penis

  • pharmacy

    The preparation and medicinal dispensing of drugs.

  • pharmacy cabinet

    Used to store equipment and drugs in a pharmacy

  • phenethicillin

    first commercially available semi synthetic penicillin

  • phlegm

    Mucus produced by the respiratory system, and expelled by coughing. Healthy phlegm is normally clear and white.

  • photomicrography

    The use of photography to obtain a permanent record (a photomicrograph) of the image of an object as viewed through a microscope.

  • phrenological head

    A representation of a human head, on which the phrenological faculties are illustrated. Phrenologists believed that one could tell personality traits by examining the bumps of the skull. The practice is now regarded as a pseudo-science.

  • phrenology

    The study of the bumps on the outside of the skull in order to determine a person's character. It was based on the mistaken theory that the skull becomes modified according to the size of different parts of the brain.

  • physical anthropology

    The study of humans, mainly their biological and physical make-up as well as their evolutionary history.

  • physician

    In the UK, a specialist in internal medicine, in the USA, the title refers to a general medical doctor.

  • physiognomy

    The study and interpretation of facial features to find the qualities of mind or character. It is based on the belief that an individual’s physical characteristics reflected their personality, an idea now rejected within medicine.

  • physiology

    The science of the functioning of living organisms and their component parts.

  • physiotherapy

    Exercise helpful to those with physical illness, for example stroke, or back injuries. A physical therapist is a specialist trained in using exercise and physical activities to condition and improve muscles.

  • piles

    Swellings that develop from three pads or cushions of tissue that line the anal canal.

  • pill box

    A small box for pills

  • pill cutter

    used to prepare pills

  • pill mould

    used to make pills and tablets

  • pill tile

    Tile used to roll and divide pills on - this helped determine the dosage of the pill.

  • pince-nez

    A type of spectacle that rests solely on the nose. Translates from French as nose-pinch

  • pipette

    A graduated tube (marked in ml) used to transport a definite volume of a gas or liquid in laboratory work.

  • placenta

    The placenta is an organ, rooted to the lining of the womb, which links an unborn baby's blood supply to the mother’s. By linking to the mother's blood supply, the placenta carries out functions that the unborn baby cannot.

  • plague

    An acute contagious fever with high levels of mortality. Both the 'Black Death' that swept Europe in the 1340s and the Great Plague of London in 1665 are believed to have been bubonic plague.

  • plaque

    An ornamental tablet of metal, porcelain etc that depicts a person, scene or inscription. Often fixed to a building in commemoration of a person or notable historical occurence.

  • plasma

    The liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. Plasma makes up around 55 per cent of blood's total volume.

  • plaster

    A term that refers to a variety of protective coverings or dressings.

  • plastic surgery

    A surgical speciality dealing with the restoration or construction of the body. Often used to refer to elective surgery done for aesthetic reasons.

  • plate

    A shallow vessel usually circular and of earthenware or china from which food is eaten or served.

  • plethysmograph

    An instrument for recording and measuring variations in the volume of organs or parts of the body. This is often caused by changes in blood pressure.

  • pleura

    The membranes covering the lungs and the inner cavity

  • pleurisy

    A condition caused by the inflammation of the pleura (the linings between the lungs and the ribcage). Symptoms include fever, chest pain and discomfort.

  • pleximeter

    A small, hard, elastic plate, made of ivory, bone, or rubber, placed in contact with body to receive a blow from a hammer or percussor.

  • pneumonia

    Inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria. The air sacs (alveoli) become filled with inflammatory cells and the lungs eventually become solid.

  • pocket watch

    Watches meant to be carried in pockets, as opposed, for example to be worn on the wrist or carried on chains.

  • poison

    Any agent which, when introduced into the animal organism, is capable of producing a morbid, noxious, or deadly effect upon it. poisons are usually defined seperately from toxins or venoms as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut.

  • poison cup

    Cup used to detect poisons by sampling and mixing with other materials.

  • polio

    An infectious disease affecting the central nervous system. Affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the polio virus enters the blood stream.

  • polygraph

    a machine designed to detect and record changes in physiological characteristics, such as a person's pulse and breathing rates, used especially as a lie detector.

  • pomander

    Small containers for fragrant spices or perfumes. A pomander was originally carried in the belief that it kept infection away.

  • porringer

    A small bowl with one or two handles, usually made of silver or pewter and most commonly used for eating greul or porridge. Popular in England and America from the 17th to the 19th centuries.

  • portrait

    A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person.

  • posset pot

    A vessel for posset (hot milk curdled with ale or wine and seasoned with spices). Made in England in the 1700s and 1800s out of stoneware, tin-glazed earthenware, or glass.

  • post box

    Physical box for public and private use, used to collect outgoing mail

  • post mortem

    A medical procedure that consists of an examination to discover the cause and manner of a death.

  • poster

    Notice, usually printed on paper, intended to be posted to advertise, promote, or publicise an activity, cause, product, or service; also, decorative, mass-produced prints intended for hanging.

  • post-traumatic stress disorder

    PTSD can start after any traumatic event causing nightmares, flashbacks, headaches and an inability to relax. PTSD has debilitating and even fatal consequences including depression, aggression and suicide.

  • pot - container

    Cylindrical or rounded container, often of metal or earthenware, of varying size; used chiefly for domestic purposes.

  • pot lid

    Cover which is usually hinged or otherwise attached to a container.

  • poultice

    A soft moist mass that is spread on cloth and applied over the skin to treat an aching or inflamed part of the body.

  • pounce box

    A small box with a perforated top, formerly used to sprinkle sand or pounce on writing paper to dry the ink of a letter.

  • pram

    a wheeled carriage for a baby, pushed by a person on foot.

  • prayer board

    A board placed on a wall in a religious place of worship. Prayers are written down and submitted by members of the church.

  • prayer flag

    (especially in Tibetan Buddhism) a flag on which prayers are inscribed.

  • prayer wheel

    Cylindrical box often wooden, usually vertically mounted with external inscription or containing a mantra script. Used as an aid to meditation, with each revolution of the box being equal to the reciting of the religious text. Used in Buddism and common in Tibet.

  • pre and post natal detector

    Diagnostic instrument designed by Michele Clements to detect pre and post natal hearing and limb movements, heart rates and breathing rates in newborns

  • pregnancy

    The condition of having a developing unborn embryo or foetus in the body. A human pregnancy is usually of 40 weeks gestation.

  • premature birth

    The birth of a baby before 37 weeks (259 days) of pregnancy.

  • prenatal screening

    Tests carried out to estimate whether a foetus is developing typically or shows signs of a possible medical condition.

  • prints

    Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. When emphasizing the individual printed image, use "impressions." Avoid the controversial expression "original prints," except in reference to discussions of the expression's use. If prints are neither "reproductive prints" nor "popular prints," use just "prints." With regard to photographs, use "photographic prints"; for types of reproductions of technical drawings and documents, use terms found under "<reprographic copies>."

  • prize medal

    medal awarded to commemorate an achievement.

  • probang

    A long, slender, flexible rod having a tuft or sponge at the end, used to remove foreign bodies from or apply medication to the larynx or asophagus

  • probe

    medical tool used during diagnostic process

  • profound hypothermia unit

    An instrument used during heart surgery to induce hypothermia and slow down the beating of the heart

  • profound mental retardation

    A level of mental retardation or mental disorder associated with an IQ below 20.

  • prolapse

    The falling down or sinking, of a part. To fall out of place.

  • prostheses

    Artificial body parts, or materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic effect. Prostheses can be functional (artificial arms and legs), or cosmetic (artificial eye).

  • prosthetic appliance

    used to replace hands

  • protection

    The act or instance of warding off a threat, or preserves somone or something from injury or harm.

  • protective spectacles

    Type spectacle with strenghened glass or other transparent medium to protect against flying particles, but not providing correction for defective vision.

  • protein

    Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids. They are essential to all living cells and organisms.

  • prototype - object genre

    Original form of an object, which is used as an example. Whenever a new design for a building or machine is being developed, a prototype will be made. The prototype is often a smaller version of the final product.

  • psychiatric hospital

    Psychiatric hospital specialising in the treatment of serious mental illness, usually for relatively long-term patients.

  • psychiatry

    A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness.

  • psychotropic drug

    A term used to describe drugs that affect mood and the mind.

  • public notice

    A form of information directed to citizens of a governmental body regarding government-related activities. Public notices have traditionally been published in specified governmental publications and in local newspapers, a common source for community information.

  • puerperal fever

    A blood infection suffered by some mothers soon after birth. The main symptom is a fever in the first 24 hours following delivery.

  • pulmonary tuberculosis

    A deadly airborne disease which attacks the lungs.

  • pulse

    The throbbing of the arteries as blood flows through them. The pulse matches the rate at which the heart is beating.

  • pulse glass

    An instrument consisting of a glass tube with terminal bulbs, containing ether or alcohol, which the heat of the hand causes to boil - so called from the pulsating motion of the liquid when thus warmed. Using a pulse glass in an experiment demonstrates Charles' law, that the volume of a given amount of dry ideal gas is directly proportional to the temperature if the amount of gas and the pressure remains fixed.

  • pump - machinery

    A device or machine that can compress and transport fluids or gases by pressure, suction, or both.

  • pustule

    A small inflammation of the skin, containing pus.

  • putrefaction

    The process of bacteria decomposing proteins, often leaving a strong and unpleasant smell.

  • puzzle

    Use for recreational artifacts designed as amusements or diversions by presenting constructional difficulties to be solved by ingenuity or patient effort

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