An abbreviation for ‘cardiac pacemaker’. It is a small device implanted in the heart that consists of electrodes. The electrodes emit electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart.
Materials for the packing or protective wrapping of products that contain information or otherwise convey a message about the product. For material used to protect, cushion, or brace objects for safe shipment or storage, carrying no information or message about the objects, use "packing material."
A small package or parcel, usually containing an object or objects.
packs of cards
Use for the aggregation of all playing cards employed in a game. HOYL91.
paddle (watercraft equipment)
Short slender shaft usually with a handle at one end and a flat round-tipped blade at the other used in a vertical manner to propel small boats; may be double-ended; for longer but similar devices with flat-tipped blades, use "oars."
Steam-powered watercraft propelled by a pair of paddle wheels mounted amidships or by a single paddle wheel at the stern; developed in the late 18th century
The branch of medicine dealing with the medical care of children, infants and adolescents. The patient age limit is usually 14-18, depending on the country. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a paediatrician.
Any dispersion of pigment in a liquid binder. Paint is applied with a brush, roller, sprayer, or by dipping and dries to form a decorative or protective film.
Complete, nonperiodical printed works generally of fewer than 80 pages, often with a paper cover, sometimes short treatises on arguments or topics of current interest. For smaller printed works, of one sheet folded and not stitched or bound, use "leaflets."
Use for complete, nonperiodical printed works generally of fewer than 80 pages, often with a paper cover, sometimes short treatises on arguments or topics of current interest. For smaller printed works, of one sheet folded and not stitched or bound, use "leaflets."
pan - container
Metal, earthenware, or plastic container, generally for domestic use, that are usually broad, shallow and open.
An epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.
Wood in the form of broad, thin, flat or sometimes curved pieces as, for example, in polyptychs, doors, and plywood construction.
A large basket, sometimes arranged in pairs and carried on the shoulders or, commonly, on a motorcycle or bicycle.
Small earthenware or now metal drinking vessels.
pantograph - drawing instrument
Devices consisting of four strips of wood or some other material which are hinged together in a square so that they overlap and can be adjusted to the scale of the work being copied, enlarged, or reduced.
A small receptacle for feeding pap to infants and invalids. Boat shaped container with one end having an extending lip for placing the mouth.
Instruments with a narrow knifelike blade and often ornamented handle used for cutting paper and opening envelopes.
Small, heavy object of glass, metal, or the like placed on papers to keep them from scattering.
parallel rule - drafting tool
Drafting tool for drawing straight parallel lines, generally consisting of ungraduated strips of wood, metal, or plastic guided along drafting boards and held parallel by wires or strings passing through the ends of the rules; may or may not slide on rollers. For a set of two attached and pivoting rulers used often as navigational aids to transfer parallel lines, prefer "parallel rulers."
The loss of function in one or more muscle groups. It causes loss of mobility and feeling.
An organism which obtains food and shelter from another organism. The second organism is known as the host. The host is harmed in some way by the parasite. Examples of human parasites include the tape worm and the head louse.
A prolonged illness commonly caused by a form of salmonella. It is similar to typhoid fever but less severe.
A railway vehicle dedicated to the carriage of parcels and similar traffic.
A label attached to a parcel in transit to indicate destination, consignee etc.
Use for documents presented to parliament
The act or process of giving birth to a child
Chair used during parturition, a seat in which a mother may give birth to her child
A railway ticket or other device permitting the holder to travel (usually without charge or at a concessionary fare).
passenger communication cord
An early means of passenger alarm communication with driver and guard.
A free-standing kiosk in the ticket hall of a station, designed to combine facilities for issuing tickets on entry and checking them on exit and equipped with turnstiles operated by the booking clerk.
A small medicated or flavoured tablet.
used to burn substances with deodorising or fumigating properties
Grants made by a government to an inventor, assuring the inventor the sole right to make, use, and sell the invention for a certain period of time.
The branch of anatomy concerned with the structural changes of the body that accompany disease. Pathological anatomy became central to medical research in the 1800s.
The branch of medicine concerned with disease, especially its structure and effects on the body.
The case history and background of a medical patient. Knowing what illnesses the patient has had can help a doctor make a diagnosis about their current condition.
used to transport patients between wards and departments
A saint believed to protect or guide a place or particular group of people.
An engraved or embossed metal token used to establish identity when collecting a pay packet.
An envelope, often perforated, that is used to make cash payments to employees.
A storage device (usually metal) into which an employee's wages would be dispensed to await collection. Often bears the employee's name or number or occupation.
Charts or lists showing lineage, especially those showing the ancestors of purebred animals. AHD.
Instruments that record the number of paces taken when walking or running and, when adjusted for an individual's pace length, can provide a rough measure of the distance travelled.
Optical toys that give the illusion of depth and action by the use of one or more magnifying lenses or mirrors set in a boxlike enclosure and viewed through a small opening on one end.
pen - drawing and writing
Hand-held instrument for writing or drawing with a colored fluid such as ink. A pen generally comprises a handle or holder and a pointed tip for distributing the fluid on the drawing surface. The term may also refer to an instrument for machine-controlled writing or drawing with ink.
pencil - drawing and writing equipment
Rods of a marking substance, enclosed in wood, plastic, or metal, and used for writing or drawing.
Hanging articles of jewellery, usually suspended from a necklace, but also includes Renaissance examples fastened to the sleeve often worn as decorative ornaments; can also be an article of devotional, magical, or mourning jewelry which then may sometimes be concealed under clothing.
pendulum balance - scales
Type of balance weighing scale, which is self-indicating, that works on the principle a pivoted off-set beam being displaced by a set amount against a set mass. The so-called pendulum can than be used to indicate the weight from the vertical against a moving scale or through linkages to a fixed one. Often used for postal scales.
Any type of clock whose timekeeping is regulated by the swinging movement of a pendulum
The first antibiotic drug to treat infections which is made from the mould penicillium. Its discovery is attributed to Alexander Fleming in 1928.
A collective growth of penicillium caused by bacteria. This was how penicillin was first discovered and grown by Alexander Fleming.
English coins of silver, derived from Roman denarii, issued from the late 8th to the 17th century and then of copper or bronze from the 18th century until 1967, when they were replaced by a new decimal penny; for equivalent French silver coins introduced in the 8th century, use "deniers."
Coffeepots in which boiling water rising through a tube is repeatedly deflected downward through a perforated basket containing ground beans to extract their essence. W.
Practice where a doctor taps on parts of the patient’s body with his fingers or an instrument called a plessor. The resulting sounds and vibrations reveal the presence of fluid or tissue that has hardened.
A small hammer, usually with soft rubber head, used to tap the body directly, in percussion of the chest or other part.
used for artifical perfusion
Common term for vaginal bleeding, which happens once a month as part of a female's menstrual cycle. Periods usually last from one to five days and begin when a girl reaches puberty.
A magazine or journal that is published at various intervals.
permanent way callipers
A pair of hinged arms for measuring small distances (e.g. rail web thickness).
permanent way gauge
A tool for measuring the profile of a rail, rail key, fishplate or other permanent way component.
Desk-top or portable computers, based on a microprocessor and meant for a single user.
Personal Information Carrier
A biometric card containing medical history and personal details of the carrier.
weighing machine or device specifically for determing the weight of an individual person, usually but not always in a domestic environment. Characterised by weighing platform or chair, based on the steelyard lever principle (Distinct from bathroom scales)
An object placed in the vagina and used to deliver medicine, as a contraceptive or as a muscle support.
An elongated piece of hard material usually made of stone. A pestle is used for grinding pigments, herbs, spices or other materials in a mortar.
A shallow dish used in science to grow micro-organisms. A Petri dish is circular, transparent and has a lid.
An internal combustion driven locomotive powered by burning petrol.
pH and blood gas analyser
A machine used to detect the pH level of blood. The pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide can also be measured.
A machine used to identify phages - a virus that attacks bacteria.
An object shaped like a penis
The branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs.
The preparation and medicinal dispensing of drugs.
Used to store equipment and drugs in a pharmacy
Simple animation device, a predecessor to the zoetrope, which was simultaneously invented in 1831 by both Joseph Plateau in Belgium and Simon von Stampfer in Austria. It relies on the persistence of vision in viewing a rotating card to give the illusion of motion.
first commercially available semi synthetic penicillin
Mucus produced by the respiratory system, and expelled by coughing. Healthy phlegm is normally clear and white.
Use for Talbot's process in which paper negatives were produced by printing out a silver image. Distinguished from "calotype," in which the image is developed. In the mid-19th century, sometimes used as a synonym of photography.
Refers to still images produced from radiation-sensitive materials (sensitive to light, electron beams, or nuclear radiation), generally by means of the chemical action of light on a sensitive film, paper, glass, or metal.
Use for a collection of a series of photographs, generally in a book, or for a device which hold a series of photographs.
Photographic lens (also known as objective lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or compound lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
Opaque photograph, usually positive (i.e., reproducing appearances without tonal reversal, otherwise use 'negative prints'), usually on paper, and generally, but not always, printed from a negative.
An instrument for obtaining photographs of the sun
A camera that is attached to a microscope, with the aim being to produce larger than life images.
The use of photography to obtain a permanent record (a photomicrograph) of the image of an object as viewed through a microscope.
The phototheodolite, a combination camera and theodolite mounted on the same tripod, is used in terrestrial photogrammetry for mapmaking and other purposes.
A representation of a human head, on which the phrenological faculties are illustrated. Phrenologists believed that one could tell personality traits by examining the bumps of the skull. The practice is now regarded as a pseudo-science.
The study of the bumps on the outside of the skull in order to determine a person's character. It was based on the mistaken theory that the skull becomes modified according to the size of different parts of the brain.
The study of humans, mainly their biological and physical make-up as well as their evolutionary history.
In the UK, a specialist in internal medicine, in the USA, the title refers to a general medical doctor.
The study and interpretation of facial features to find the qualities of mind or character. It is based on the belief that an individual’s physical characteristics reflected their personality, an idea now rejected within medicine.
The science of the functioning of living organisms and their component parts.
Exercise helpful to those with physical illness, for example stroke, or back injuries. A physical therapist is a specialist trained in using exercise and physical activities to condition and improve muscles.
Mould for casting that are made in two or more pieces, sometimes to be used more than once.
Swellings that develop from three pads or cushions of tissue that line the anal canal.
A small box for pills
used to prepare pills
used to make pills and tablets
Tile used to roll and divide pills on - this helped determine the dosage of the pill.
A meteorological balloon, which doesn’t carry instrumentation. Small balloons are used to determine the cloud base height. Larger balloons - reaching 15 km altitudes - are used to establish the direction and rate of upper-level winds, by tracking their ascent with a theodolite.
A type of spectacle that rests solely on the nose. Translates from French as nose-pinch
Joined tools with a pair of jaws and handles; used to grip objects. MEANS.
A graduated tube (marked in ml) used to transport a definite volume of a gas or liquid in laboratory work.
Short firearms, either rifled or smoothbore, with the chamber made as an integral part of the barrel, designed for use with one hand.
The disc-shaped or cylindrical assembly that, from or against pressure, moves back and forth inside the cylinders of a steam locomotive.
An inside or outside admission steam distribution valve with two piston heads spaced on a spindle and fitted with rings to maintain steam tightness.
Large two-man saws used to saw boards from the lengths of logs which are placed over big pits. The saws are operated by one man standing on the log and the other standing in the pit.
Small table mats on which individual place settings are laid.
The placenta is an organ, rooted to the lining of the womb, which links an unborn baby's blood supply to the mother’s. By linking to the mother's blood supply, the placenta carries out functions that the unborn baby cannot.
An acute contagious fever with high levels of mortality. Both the 'Black Death' that swept Europe in the 1340s and the Great Plague of London in 1665 are believed to have been bubonic plague.
Tool used for leveling and smoothing the surface of wood by paring shavings from it.
A type of projector used to project images of celestial objects onto the dome inside a building or structure normally referred to as a planetarium.
Device for measuring the area of any plane surface by tracing the boundary of the area.
An ornamental tablet of metal, porcelain etc that depicts a person, scene or inscription. Often fixed to a building in commemoration of a person or notable historical occurence.
The liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. Plasma makes up around 55 per cent of blood's total volume.
A term that refers to a variety of protective coverings or dressings.
A surgical speciality dealing with the restoration or construction of the body. Often used to refer to elective surgery done for aesthetic reasons.
A shallow vessel usually circular and of earthenware or china from which food is eaten or served.
A camera designed to take glass plate negatives
A lightweight railway vehicle for the use of track maintenance staff. May be pushed by hand, manually propelled through a lever and crank system or self-propelled by an internal conmbustion engine.
A wheeled hand cart for transporting luggage, goods and equipment along station platforms.
A seat provided on the platform for the use of travellers.
An electrical indicator denoting the occupation of a platform line in a station.
A sign or notice used to provide information or warnings on railway platforms.
Scale in which the balance pan for loads is a platform mounted on a balanced beam or series of levers; usually used for heavy goods, often in bulk.
Any information sign or warning notice situated on a station platform.
platform ticket machine
A free-standing, or wall-mounted, coin operated machine for the unattended sale of platform tickets.
Cards made in sets of a designated number and marked for use as game accessories during play. The markings or designs may follow a standard suit or rank system or may be special and individualized.
Cards made in sets of a designated number and marked for use as game accessories during play; the markings or designs may follow a standard suit or rank system or may be special and individualized.
An instrument for recording and measuring variations in the volume of organs or parts of the body. This is often caused by changes in blood pressure.
The membranes covering the lungs and the inner cavity
A condition caused by the inflammation of the pleura (the linings between the lungs and the ribcage). Symptoms include fever, chest pain and discomfort.
A small, hard, elastic plate, made of ivory, bone, or rubber, placed in contact with body to receive a blow from a hammer or percussor.
Pincerlike hand tools with scissors action, usually with serrated jaws; used for gripping, holding, bending, and cutting. DAC.
plug tap - cutting tool
Cylinder-shaped tap used for cutting internal screw threads.
Inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria. The air sacs (alveoli) become filled with inflammatory cells and the lungs eventually become solid.
Minature form of sextant designed to fit in pocket when carried - includes box sextant.
Watches meant to be carried in pockets, as opposed, for example to be worn on the wrist or carried on chains.
Written or oral compositions characterized by condensed language chosen for sound and suggestive power as well as meaning, and by the use of such literary techniques as structured meter, natural cadences, rhyme, or metaphor. AHD.
Any agent which, when introduced into the animal organism, is capable of producing a morbid, noxious, or deadly effect upon it. poisons are usually defined seperately from toxins or venoms as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut.
Cup used to detect poisons by sampling and mixing with other materials.
Use for timber formed into long, cylindrical sections, the approximate diameter at breast height being one foot or less.
An infectious disease affecting the central nervous system. Affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the polio virus enters the blood stream.
A preparation used in polishing
a machine designed to detect and record changes in physiological characteristics, such as a person's pulse and breathing rates, used especially as a lie detector.
The polyrama panoptique was an optical toy popular from the 1820s through to the 1850s. The box shaped device held an illustration card which was illuminated and could be viewed by the user, through a lens.
Small containers for fragrant spices or perfumes. A pomander was originally carried in the belief that it kept infection away.
A small bowl with one or two handles, usually made of silver or pewter and most commonly used for eating greul or porridge. Popular in England and America from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person.
A vessel for posset (hot milk curdled with ale or wine and seasoned with spices). Made in England in the 1700s and 1800s out of stoneware, tin-glazed earthenware, or glass.
Physical box for public and private use, used to collect outgoing mail
A medical procedure that consists of an examination to discover the cause and manner of a death.
A range of scales, of various designs, for weighing and hence determining the rate of postage for letters.
Card on which a message may be written or printed for posting without an envelope, usually at a lower rate than that for letters in envelopes.
Cards on which a message may be written or printed for mailing without an envelope, usually at a lower rate than that for letters in envelopes.
Notice, usually printed on paper, intended to be posted to advertise, promote, or publicise an activity, cause, product, or service; also, decorative, mass-produced prints intended for hanging.
Notices intended to be posted to advertise, promote, or publicize an activity, cause, product, or service; also, decorative, mass-produced prints intended for hanging. For small printed notices or advertisements intended for distribution by hand, use "handbills."
post-traumatic stress disorder
PTSD can start after any traumatic event causing nightmares, flashbacks, headaches and an inability to relax. PTSD has debilitating and even fatal consequences including depression, aggression and suicide.
pot - container
Cylindrical or rounded container, often of metal or earthenware, of varying size; used chiefly for domestic purposes.
Cover which is usually hinged or otherwise attached to a container.
A soft moist mass that is spread on cloth and applied over the skin to treat an aching or inflamed part of the body.
A small box with a perforated top, formerly used to sprinkle sand or pounce on writing paper to dry the ink of a letter.
a wheeled carriage for a baby, pushed by a person on foot.
Animation device, a successor to the zoetrope, was invented in France in 1877 by Charles-Émile Reynaud. It consists of series of pictures inside a shallow drum with the same number of slits and matching mirrors mounted in the centre. As the cylinder rotates around the stationary mirrors the quick succession of reflected pictures gives the illusion of a moving picture.
A board placed on a wall in a religious place of worship. Prayers are written down and submitted by members of the church.
(especially in Tibetan Buddhism) a flag on which prayers are inscribed.
Cylindrical box often wooden, usually vertically mounted with external inscription or containing a mantra script. Used as an aid to meditation, with each revolution of the box being equal to the reciting of the religious text. Used in Buddism and common in Tibet.
pre and post natal detector
Diagnostic instrument designed by Michele Clements to detect pre and post natal hearing and limb movements, heart rates and breathing rates in newborns
The condition of having a developing unborn embryo or foetus in the body. A human pregnancy is usually of 40 weeks gestation.
The birth of a baby before 37 weeks (259 days) of pregnancy.
Tests carried out to estimate whether a foetus is developing typically or shows signs of a possible medical condition.
Versatile collapsible medium to large format folding cameras with three finders: optical viewfinder, rangefinder and sportsfinder.
Official or authoritative statements giving information for publication in newspapers or periodicals. GAHLM.
Statement or list of the prevailing prices of merchandise, stock, or other items for sale.
Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. When emphasizing the individual printed image, use "impressions." Avoid the controversial expression "original prints," except in reference to discussions of the expression's use.
Output device that convertS coded information from the processor into a readable form on paper
Blocks, usually of wood, that either are cut to print an image, whether on paper, fabric, or other material, or that support other materials that form the actual printing surface.
Pictorial works produced by transferring images by means of a matrix such as a plate, block, or screen, using any of various printing processes. When emphasizing the individual printed image, use "impressions." Avoid the controversial expression "original prints," except in reference to discussions of the expression's use. If prints are neither "reproductive prints" nor "popular prints," use just "prints." With regard to photographs, use "photographic prints"; for types of reproductions of technical drawings and documents, use terms found under "<reprographic copies>."
prism - optical
Transparentt triangular bar made of glass, plastic or other materials, used to refract (bend) light in optical instruments to produce a spectrum for demonstration or for spectral analysis.
prism - optical demonstration
Demonstration using 60º prism, usually on a stand, show the colour spectrum from white light
A type of surveying compass fitted with sights - often folding - and a moveable prism to directly read the bearing on compass card whilst taking a bearing through the sights.
medal awarded to commemorate an achievement.
A long, slender, flexible rod having a tuft or sponge at the end, used to remove foreign bodies from or apply medication to the larynx or asophagus
medical tool used during diagnostic process
A profile gauge resembles a comb, but with steel teeth that are set tightly against one another. When pressed against an object they will conform to the shape of that object's profile - hence 'profile gauge'
profound hypothermia unit
An instrument used during heart surgery to induce hypothermia and slow down the beating of the heart
profound mental retardation
A level of mental retardation or mental disorder associated with an IQ below 20.
Brief outlines or explanations of the order to be pursued, criteria for participation, or the subjects embraced in a given event or endeavor. Includes lists of the features composing a dramatic or other performance, with the names of participants.
Optical microscope that produces a magnified projected image that is viewed either through a glass screen or projected onto an opaque surface using natural or artificial light
A device for projecting a beam of light; for projecting an image onto a screen
The falling down or sinking, of a part. To fall out of place.
Refers in a general way to impressions of a print taken from a plate or block, usually before the production of the regular edition, in order to correct, add to, or check the development of a work. Formerly, true proofs referred to proofs made before work on the plate or block is finished. Common since the 18th century are proofs before letters, artist's proofs, remarque proofs, and printers' proofs; these are types of proofs that are deliberately printed to be sold at higher prices and are not, in the strictest sense, true proofs.
Revolving shafts with radiating blades used to propel craft through air or water
A railway company promoters' first formal document outlining the purpose and benefits of the proposed railway. Its purpose was to attract investment.
Artificial body parts, or materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic effect. Prostheses can be functional (artificial arms and legs), or cosmetic (artificial eye).
used to replace hands
A device, either external or implanted, that substitutes for or supplements a missing or defective part of the body.
The act or instance of warding off a threat, or preserves somone or something from injury or harm.
Type spectacle with strenghened glass or other transparent medium to protect against flying particles, but not providing correction for defective vision.
Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids. They are essential to all living cells and organisms.
prototype - object genre
Original form of an object, which is used as an example. Whenever a new design for a building or machine is being developed, a prototype will be made. The prototype is often a smaller version of the final product.
A locomotive which is the first of a new type, where other examples might be expected to follow successful trials.
A mathematical instrument for laying down and measuring angles on paper
Devices used for plotting or measuring angles, often designed as graduated arcs.
Psychiatric hospital specialising in the treatment of serious mental illness, usually for relatively long-term patients.
A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness.
A term used to describe drugs that affect mood and the mind.
describing drugs that affect mood and the mind
A form of information directed to citizens of a governmental body regarding government-related activities. Public notices have traditionally been published in specified governmental publications and in local newspapers, a common source for community information.
A document showing the publicly advertised times of train departures and arrivals at stations en route (cf. the Working Timetable).
A blood infection suffered by some mothers soon after birth. The main symptom is a fever in the first 24 hours following delivery.
Wheels having grooved rims for carrying a rope or other line and turning in a frame. DAC.
A deadly airborne disease which attacks the lungs.
The throbbing of the arteries as blood flows through them. The pulse matches the rate at which the heart is beating.
An instrument consisting of a glass tube with terminal bulbs, containing ether or alcohol, which the heat of the hand causes to boil - so called from the pulsating motion of the liquid when thus warmed. Using a pulse glass in an experiment demonstrates Charles' law, that the volume of a given amount of dry ideal gas is directly proportional to the temperature if the amount of gas and the pressure remains fixed.
pump - machinery
A device or machine that can compress and transport fluids or gases by pressure, suction, or both.
punch - marking tool
Tool that, by repeated sudden impact or by continuous pressure, is used to make pricks, indentations, or perforations in various materials. It is usually in the form of a steel rod with an end that may take a variety of shapes used for marking, blanking, decoration, driving in nails, enlarging an existing hole, or cutting out pieces of a particular shape.
A small inflammation of the skin, containing pus.
The process of bacteria decomposing proteins, often leaving a strong and unpleasant smell.
Use for recreational artifacts designed as amusements or diversions by presenting constructional difficulties to be solved by ingenuity or patient effort
Use for recreational artifacts designed as amusements or diversions by presenting constructional difficulties to be solved by ingenuity or patient effort. For word or number diversions to be solved, see under "<word and number puzzles and games>." RHDEL2.
Instruments for measuring high temperatures by measuring the radiation emitted by hot objects. RHDEL2.