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Glossary

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P

  • photographic lens

    Photographic lens (also known as objective lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or compound lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

  • photographic print

    Opaque photograph, usually positive (i.e., reproducing appearances without tonal reversal, otherwise use 'negative prints'), usually on paper, and generally, but not always, printed from a negative.

  • photoheliograph

    An instrument for obtaining photographs of the sun

  • photomicrographic camera

    A camera that is attached to a microscope, with the aim being to produce larger than life images.

  • photomicrography

    The use of photography to obtain a permanent record (a photomicrograph) of the image of an object as viewed through a microscope.

  • phototheodolite

    The phototheodolite, a combination camera and theodolite mounted on the same tripod, is used in terrestrial photogrammetry for mapmaking and other purposes.

  • phrenological head

    A representation of a human head, on which the phrenological faculties are illustrated. Phrenologists believed that one could tell personality traits by examining the bumps of the skull. The practice is now regarded as a pseudo-science.

  • phrenology

    The study of the bumps on the outside of the skull in order to determine a person's character. It was based on the mistaken theory that the skull becomes modified according to the size of different parts of the brain.

  • physical anthropology

    The study of humans, mainly their biological and physical make-up as well as their evolutionary history.

  • physician

    In the UK, a specialist in internal medicine, in the USA, the title refers to a general medical doctor.

  • physiognomy

    The study and interpretation of facial features to find the qualities of mind or character. It is based on the belief that an individual’s physical characteristics reflected their personality, an idea now rejected within medicine.

  • physiology

    The science of the functioning of living organisms and their component parts.

  • physiotherapy

    Exercise helpful to those with physical illness, for example stroke, or back injuries. A physical therapist is a specialist trained in using exercise and physical activities to condition and improve muscles.

  • piece mould

    Mould for casting that are made in two or more pieces, sometimes to be used more than once.

  • piles

    Swellings that develop from three pads or cushions of tissue that line the anal canal.

  • pill box

    A small box for pills

  • pill cutter

    used to prepare pills

  • pill mould

    used to make pills and tablets

  • pill tile

    Tile used to roll and divide pills on - this helped determine the dosage of the pill.

  • pilot balloon

    A meteorological balloon, which doesn’t carry instrumentation. Small balloons are used to determine the cloud base height. Larger balloons - reaching 15 km altitudes - are used to establish the direction and rate of upper-level winds, by tracking their ascent with a theodolite.

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