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T

  • tablet making machine

    A machine for pressing and forming tablets.

  • tally

    A ticket or label for identification; a total score or an amount; A stick or rod, usually squared, marked on one side with transverse notches representing the amount of a debt or payment.

  • tankard

    A drinking-vessel, formerly made of wooden staves and hooped; now esp. a tall one-handled jug or mug, usually of pewter, sometimes with a lid: used chiefly for drinking beer.

  • tape measure

    Long, narrow, flexible strips of linen, steel, or wire-woven cloth graduated to measure distances and often stored coiled in a protective casing into which they can be rewound after use.

  • tar

    Inflammable blackish viscous liquid obtained by the distillation of wood or coal. As a constituent of cigarettes, tar is known to have cancer causing properties.

  • tattoo

    Marking the skin with a design by puncturing it and inserting pigment. On humans a tattoo is often a form of decoration, but on animals it is usually a form of marking or branding.

  • tea

    slab of compressed tea often with images moulded in relief.

  • teaching aid

    A tool used by teachers, facilitators, or tutors to help learners improve reading and other skills,or to illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact, or idea. They can often combat anxiety or boredom, as many teaching aids are like games.

  • Teflon shunt

    A shunt is a passage connecting two anatomical features, for instance, an artery and a vein. Teflon is a non-stick plastic polytetrafluoroethylene.

  • telescope

    optical instruments using mirrors, lenses or both, which produces a magnified image of distant view. There are three main types of telescope; namely refracting (dioptric), reflecting (catoptric) and the combination of the former types known as catadioptric.

  • tenaculum

    An instrument consisting of a fine, sharp hook attached to a handle, and used mainly for taking up arteries, and the like

  • tent - portable building

    Collapsible shelter of canvas, skin, plastic, or other flexible and water-repellent material stretched and sustained by poles, usually secured by ropes to pegs in the ground.

  • terminal illness

    An advanced stage of a disease that has no known cure and is fatal.

  • terra sigillata

    A form of clay from the Greek islands of Lemnos or Samos. Until the 1700s, terra sigillata was used as a medicine and seen as a general cure for bodily impurities.

  • test tube

    Hollow cylinders of thin glass with one end closed. Test tubes are used for chemical and biological experiments and analysis.

  • tetanus

    An acute infectious disease, affecting the nervous system. Infection generally occurs through contamination of a wound. Symptoms include a locked jaw, arching of the back or neck and the inability to urinate.

  • thalidomide

    A drug that was prescribed in the 1950s and 60s as a sedative for pregnant women. Thalidomide was supposed to relieve symptoms of morning sickness. However, it led to birth defects among babies, and was banned. Since 1998, the drug has been avaliable to treat other conditions, but its prescription is highly regulated.

  • The Incas

    The largest empire in Pre-Columbian America. Its origins lie in the city-state created by the Quechuan people based in the high Cuzco valley in Peru from the 1100s. The Incas conquered large areas of South America during the 1400s. The empire was itself conquered by the arrival of Spanish adventurers in the following century.

  • theatre cap

    worn by nursing and surgical staff during operations

  • theriac

    An ointment used as an antidote to snake venom or other poison.

  • thermal cycler

    A machine used for copying parts of DNA via the process of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

  • thermocouple

    Device that can generate an electrical current proportional to the amount of heat to which it is exposed. Thermocouples are a widely used temperature sensor in electrical engineering and industry.

  • thermometer

    Instruments for measuring temperature by utilizing the variation of the physical properties of substances according to their thermal states..

  • thermopile

    An instrument of extreme sensibility, used to determine slight differences and degrees of heat

  • Thomas splint

    A splint used to immobilise leg fractures to allow healing. It has a ring at the hip connecting to a cross-piece at the foot.

  • thorn

    A modified plant organ, especially a stem, that is stiffened and terminates in a sharp point. Has been used historically for medicinal purposes such as variolation or vaccination

  • throat swab

    a wad of absorbent material usually wound around one end of a small stick and used for applying medication or for removing material from an area

  • thrush

    A yeast infection that affects the mouth, gut and vagina. Usual symptoms include redness, soreness and itching.

  • tic douloureux

    A stabbing pain in the forehead, nose, and scalp, caused by a disorder of the trigeminal nerve (a major nerve in the face).

  • tin - can

    Can made of tin plated metal, usual iron or steel.

  • tincture

    A solution of a medical substance (often a herb or natural plant material) in alcohol. Tinctures were commonly used as alternative medicines in the 1800s.

  • tine test

    a tuberculin test in which a disk with several tines bearing tuberculin antigen is used to puncture the skin; development of a hard red area indicates past or present exposure to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing

  • tireford

    used in trephination

  • tobacco box

    Small box used for carrying smoking or chewing tobacco, especially those with unattached fitted covers. For similar box having a hinged lid instead of an unattached, fitted cover, use "snuffbox."

  • tobacconist

    A person who deals in tobacco and smoking supplies.

  • toilet accessory

    Piece of equipment that is associated with the toilet or personal hygiene routine such as toothbrushes, hairbrushes, combs etc

  • token

    Designates a substitute for money that move within a limited universe, usually not in general circulation, that may be exchanged for particular goods or services, and are made from hard substances whose intrinsic value is always less than the stated value. The best known example, the trade tokens of Strachan and Company, were issued in South Africa in 1874 and are today recognised as that country's first widely circulating indigenous currency.

  • tomography

    Type of radiography which uses a rotating detector and source of radiation to gain an image of a cross-section of the body. Device is called a tomograph and the end result is called a tomogram.

  • tongs

    Any of numerous devices used for taking hold of objects, consisting commonly of two metal pieces that are joined at one end or near one end by a pivot or spring, forming the two jaws which are used for gripping.

  • tongue écraseur

    Instrument used for tongue excision (removal by cutting)

  • tongue scraper

    An instrument to remove 'fur' off the tongue.

  • tongue-depressor

    blade that is used to depress the tongue to allow for inspection of the mouth and throat

  • tonoscillograph

    for measuring blood pressure

  • tonsil guillotine

    Historical instrument once used for the removal of tonsils.

  • tonsillectomy

    The surgical removal of the tonsils.

  • tonsillitis

    Inflammation of the tonsils due to bacterial or viral infection. Tonsillitis causes a sore throat, fever and difficulty in swallowing.

  • tonsils

    trial term

  • tooth cavity

    Holes in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel and the dentin. Small cavities may not cause pain, and may be unnoticed by the patient. Larger cavities can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins, foods that are cold, hot, sour, or sweet causing toothache. Also referred to as caries.

  • tooth powder

    A powder used for cleaning the teeth. Tooth powders were in general use in 1800s Britain. Most were homemade, with chalk, pulverized brick, or salt as ingredients.

  • tooth pulling

    The removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to prevent restoration. Extractions of impacted or problematic wisdom teeth are also routinely performed.

  • tooth shade guide

    A set of pictures that allows a dentist to identify the shade of their patients' teeth. This information is used by the dentist to create an artificial tooth that is a similar shade.

  • toothache

    Pain in a tooth or in the teeth

  • toothpick case

    A case used to hold toothpicks

  • touchpiece

    Touchpieces are coins and medals that have attracted superstitious beliefs. Such pieces were believed to cure disease, bring good luck, or influence people’s behaviour.

  • tourniquet

    An apparatus designed for the compression of the vessels of the limb. A loosely applied tourniquet can reduce venous blood flow out of a limb. A tightly applied tourniquet can lessen arterial blood flow into it.

  • towel rail

    Used for hanging towels

  • toxin

    A poisonous substance.

  • toy - recreational artefact

    Toys that provide visual stimulus and entertainment through various optical principles, such as persistence of vision, projection and other optical effects and demonstrations.

  • toys (recreational artifacts)

    Use for objects of delight, playthings that give pleasure during idle moments and are often small representations of something familiar.

  • trachea

    The windpipe: the part of the air passage between the larynx and the main bronchi.

  • tracheotomy

    A surgical procedure to make an opening directly into the windpipe.

  • tracheotomy set

    used to perform tracheotomy

  • traction apparatus

    Apparatus for use in traction - the application of a pulling force, especially as a means of counteracting the natural tension in the tissues surrounding a broken bone (see countertraction), to produce correct alignment of the fragments.

  • trade

    Refers to the willing exchange of goods. Also defined as the activity of buying, selling, or bartering commodities.

  • trade card

    Printed sheets, and later cards, bearing tradesmen's advertisements, often including an engraved illustration; produced from the 17th through the 19th century. Cards made later often included the name and address of a business concern and the name of its representative, and intended more for information than for advertising, use "business cards." For cards made later and distributed for advertisement, use "advertising cards," and for those made later and issued primarily to be collected, with or without advertisements on them, use "collecting cards."

  • Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a medical tradition originating in China, but now used worldwide. Treatments include herbal medicine, massage and acupuncture, which are combined to create a therapy tailored to the patient.

  • traditional medicine

    Used in the West for sets of health beliefs and practices that developed within the culture of a particular ethnic or geographic group of people, distinct from modern Western medicine. Commonly includes herbal and homeopathic remedies, religious or spiritual ritual, and an holistic approach to patients.

  • transistor

    An electrical device used to amplify electrical signals.

  • transplant

    Surgical operation to introduce organ or tissue from one person (the donor) to another (the recipient). It may also refer to the transfer of tissues from one part of a person's body to another part of the same person's body.

  • tray

    Open, variously shaped containers of wood, metal or other rigid material with a flat bottom and a low rim for holding, carrying, or exhibiting articles.

  • tremor

    An involuntary quivering or trembling.

  • trench foot

    A medical condition caused by the prolonged exposure of feet to water. Affected feet become numb and swollen. Untreated trench foot leads to gangrene and amputation.

  • trephination

    The removal of a circular piece of the top of the head. This is done using a sharp implement or circular saw, and was common in Neolithic times. It is thought that the aim was to release evil demons or spirits from the body in the hope this would cure the person of their illness.

  • trephination set

    Instrument set to perform trephination (Removal of a circular piece ("button") of cranium by a trephine)

  • trephine

    An instrument for trepanning, being an historical advancement on the trepan. It is a circular or cylindrical saw, with a handle like that of a gimlet, and a little sharp perforator called the center pin.

  • trial lenses

    A set of lenses that were used to diagnose problems with vision. Each lens is slightly different and would be held in front of the patients eye. Modern day opticians continue to use trial lenses.

  • trichinosis

    Trichinosis is an intestinal and tissue infection of humans and other mammals. Infection occurs through the consumption of infected meat (usually domestic pork) that carries the encysted larvae of T. Spiralis. Common symptoms include: diarrhoea, muscle pains, fever, dehydration and swelling around the eyes. Myocarditis (heart infection), pneumonitis (lung infection) and encephalitis (brain infection) can also occur in advanced cases.

  • trocar

    An examining instrument with a triangular point, used for exploring tissues or for inserting drainage tubes, as in drospy.

  • tropical disease

    Diseases that are unique to or common in tropical areas. They are often water- or insect-borne. Examples of tropical diseases include leprosy, malaria, sleeping sickness and yellow fever.

  • tropical medicine

    Tropical medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with health problems that are more widespread in tropical and subtropical regions.

  • truss

    A bandage or apparatus used by hernia patients to support the affected parts and hold them in the correct position.

  • ts'ien tung

    A process of treatment specific to Traditional Chinese Medicine. Eighteen bamboo sticks are inscribed with a different number. A worshipper at the God of Medicine Temple shakes the container while praying until one of the sticks falls out. The stick is taken to a counter for a prescription matching that number which is dispensed at a pharmacy.

  • tube

    a cylindrical or oval profiled container used to contain a product with a semi-liquid, jelly, cream or paste-like consistency. Used for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic or chemical products, for example, ointment, toothpaste, make-up or paint. Usually made of plastic or aluminium, threaded at one end and sealed with a cap and completely sealed at the other. The tube can be hermetically sealed and the contents for pharmaceutical or other preparations are near germ-free due to the high temperatures used during production.

  • tubercles

    A round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on bones, skin, or within the lungs in tuberculosis.

  • tuberculin

    A protein extracted from the tuberculosis causing bacterium. It is used in tests to determine if a person has been exposed to the bacteria and is in danger of coming down with the disease.

  • tuberculin tine tester

    used in the tine test

  • tuberculosis

    An infectious disease that is caused by a bacterium first identified by Robert Koch in 1882. The disease usually affects the lungs first, and is accompanied by a chronic cough.

  • tumour

    IGNORE-DEDUPE

  • tusk

    Large protruding incisor tooth, such as is found on elephants and walruses, composed primarily of dentin. Tusks are used by humans to produce ivory.

  • twins

    two individuals who are born at the same time and of the same parents via the same pregnancy. Twins can be monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (non-identical, and the most popular form of twins)

  • typhoid fever

    An acute infection of the digestive system, resulting in general weakness, high fever, rash, chills and sweating. It is transmitted through food or drinking water contaminated by the faeces or urine of patients or carriers.

  • typhus

    A severe and often fatal infectious disease. It is transmitted mainly by body lice. Its symptoms are high fever, stupor, intense headache, and a dark red rash.

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