PTC-225 Tetrad thermal cycler, United States, 1995
Known as a thermal cycler or PCR, this machine is used to duplicate DNA and produce millions of identical copies within a matter of hours. The Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England, used this type of equipment for their work on sequencing the human genome. The project, which aimed to sequence the chemical structure of human DNA and identify the genes that determine heredity, was completed in 2003. The machine was made by M J Research Inc and each pod can amplify different samples.
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DNA stores the information, or blueprints, of every cell and is located in the genes. It is made up of two strands which form a double helix that is linked by hydrogen bonds. It was first described in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson.
Part of the nucleus of a cell that determines how our bodies function. Genes are passed from parents to children.
Glossary: thermal cycler
A machine used for copying parts of DNA via the process of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).