Napoleon's Toothbrush, Europe, 1790-1821
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) was a French leader with a distinguished military career which culminated in him becoming Napoleon I, Emperor of France and ruler of a large empire. Napoleon brushed his teeth regularly using opium-based toothpaste. His toothbrush has a silver gilt handle and bristles made of horsehair – synthetic nylon bristles have replaced natural bristles in modern toothbrushes. The handle shows his monogram “N”.
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The science of health and how to maintain it. A condition or practice which promotes good health. The definition varies widely and differs across cultures.
Small brushes, with long handles, for cleaning the teeth. A variety of oral hygiene measures have been used since before recorded history. This has been verified by various excavations done all over the world, in which tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones and porcupine quills that had been used to clean or brush ones teeth were recovered.
The study, treatment and management of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, gums, teeth and their supporting tissues.