Replica of Clayfield's mercurial holder, Leeds, England, 1968
This copy of an experimental apparatus was made by the University of Leeds in 1968 for a film in which they repeated Sir Humphry Davy’s (1778-1829) experiments with nitrous oxide. Davy (1778-1829) used this type of instrument during his research on nitrous oxide or ‘laughing gas’. His description of the machine can be found in his ‘Researches, Chemical and Philosophical; Chiefly Concerning Nitrous Oxide’ (London, 1800). The original machine was invented by William Clayfield sometime between 1795 and 1800 and was used to measure how much nitrous oxide could be inhaled by a patient. In his experiments it was often Davy himself who was the subject. The jar at the bottom was filled with mercury. The volume of gas that remained above the mercury was shown on the wheel at the top, using a system of weights. Nitrous oxide parties were popular in the early 1800s, causing hysterical laughter followed by a sluggish state. Due to its recreational use and some failed experiments, it was not taken seriously by the medical profession until the late 1860s when it replaced chloroform as the preferred anaesthetic in dentistry. However, it could only be used for short treatments.
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Glossary: nitrous oxide
Nitrogen oxide. A colourless, odourless gas that is used as an anaesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
An agent that causes insensitivity to pain. Applied to either the whole body (general anaesthetic) or a particular area or region (local anaesthetic).
Glossary: mercurial air holder
Device that measures the amount of air a person releases when breathing out.