Mareschal-type vaccinostyles, France, 1881-1920
Vaccinostyles were pen nib-like points used for vaccination. The nibs were mounted on to a pen holder, dipped into the vaccine, sunk into the skin (to administer the vaccine) and thrown away after one use. Vaccinostyles were particularly popular in France and Belgium and were made by fountain pen makers. The pen-like vaccinator was still available in 1952.
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A substance given to humans or animals to improve immunity from disease. A vaccine can sometimes contain a small amount of bacteria that is designed to stimulate the body's reaction to that particular disease. The first vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner to prevent smallpox.