Ten disposable vaccination syringes to protect against hepatitis B, Belgium, 1993
Hepatitis B is a disease that causes inflammation of the liver. Long term effects include liver diseases and liver cancer. The vaccine was introduced in the 1980s. It is thought that immunity from vaccination is for life, although this has not been confirmed. ‘Engerix B’ was the first commercially made and sold bio-engineered vaccine. Made by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, the vaccine was grown in yeast.
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The introduction of vaccine into the body for the purpose of inducing immunity. Coined originally to apply to the injection of smallpox vaccine, the term has come to mean any immunising procedure in which vaccine is injected.
The condition of being immune, the protection against infectious disease conferred either by the immune response generated by immunisation or previous infection or by other nonimmunologic factors.
Glossary: Treatments and cures
An instrument used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. The open end of the syringe may be fitted with a hypodermic needle for injection into the bloodstream.
A substance given to humans or animals to improve immunity from disease. A vaccine can sometimes contain a small amount of bacteria that is designed to stimulate the body's reaction to that particular disease. The first vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner to prevent smallpox.
Glossary: hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a virus spread through the contact of bodily fluids. It is one hundred times more infectious than HIV, and can lead to severe liver damage, but there is an effective vaccine available.
The development of artificial replacement limbs, organs and tissues. It also refers to the use of plants in controlling erosion and in landscape restoration.