Small cryostat vessels such as these keep biological material at temperatures below minus 100ºC. The Department of Molecular Endocrinology at University College London used this cryostat for research in immunology and molecular biology. Cryostats often treat samples so they can then be cut into extremely thin slices for examination. Freezing samples also means they can be stored for future use and research.
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Measurement is the process of estimating the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to some standard (unit of measurement), such as a meter or a kilogram. The act of measuring usually involves using a measuring instrument, such as a ruler, weighing scale, thermometer or speedometer which is calibrated to compare the measured attribute to a measurement unit. Metrology is the scientific study of measurement.
A biological speciality. Immunology is the study of the immune system, including how humans fight off disease.
Glossary: molecular biology