Polarimeter, Berlin, Germany, 1895-1905
Polarimeters measure the sugar content of a specimen and can be used in a number of fields, including medicine. Urine is tested in this way. Too much sugar in urine indicates diabetes. The testing process is known as saccharimetry. The polarimeter measures the angle of rotation of a polarised plane of a beam of light when it passes through an optically active substance, such as a sugar solution. A polarimeter is also known as a saccharimeter. It was a basic instrument used in chemical analysis. This example comes with its own box and is made of brass and metal. It was manufactured by Schmidt and Haensch, who still make polarimeters.
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The branch of science that studies substances which constitute matter with the aim of discovering their properties, how they react, and the uses and products of such reactions.