Skiascope, Germany, before 1925
A skiascope is used in skiascopy, or retinoscopy. This procedure determines the refractive state of the eye and is used to diagnose astigmatism. This condition distorts vision because light rays cannot focus properly. Light is shone into the eye during skiascopy by using the circular mirror with a hole in the centre. The direction of the movement of light and shadow across the pupil relative to the movement of the mirror is then observed. This skiascope comes in a velvet and silk lined case. It is accompanied by an astigmatic fan – the circular object with the radial lines printed on it. This is a further test for astigmatism. The skiascope was invented by Dr D. Roth.
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The branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways (usually the eyes or the brain).