Eye phantom, France, 1871-1900
This brass eye phantom was an ingenious device used as a teaching aid for ophthalmology students. Each of the 12 cups is painted with normal or abnormal retinal appearance. The painted retinas were fitted onto the glass globe incorporated in the phantom. The student viewed the painted retina with an ophthalmoscope as if examining a real eye. The ophthalmoscope was invented in 1851 by Herman von Helmholtz (1821-1894). It became the main instrument used to view the internal structure of the eye.
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The branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways (usually the eyes or the brain).
Glossary: teaching aid
A tool used by teachers, facilitators, or tutors to help learners improve reading and other skills,or to illustrate or reinforce a skill, fact, or idea. They can often combat anxiety or boredom, as many teaching aids are like games.
Glossary: eye phantom