Ophthalmoscope, Paris, France, 1871-1900
Herman von Helmholtz (1821-1894) invented the ophthalmoscope in 1851. It is a simple, highly effective instrument used to view the interior of the eye. Helmholtz reasoned an observer placing his eye in the path of light reflected from the back of a subject’s eye (through the pupil) could see the subject’s retina. Helmholtz used glass plates angled at 45 degrees to reflect sunlight into the eye. In this example, a ratchet mechanism rotates two wheels of lenses in front of a perforated mirror.
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The branch of medicine dealing with the diseases and surgery of the visual pathways (usually the eyes or the brain).
An instrument for viewing the interior of the eye, particularly the retina. Light is shone into the eye via a mirror (usually concave) and then examined with or without the aid of a lens. Invented by by Hermann Von Helmholtz in 1850