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Dolly (1996-2003)

Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to be successfully cloned from adult cells, by a team of researchers at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. Dolly had been cloned from a mammary gland (the organs that produce milk in mammals' breasts). Dolly was named after the singer Dolly Parton.

Sheep can reach an age of about 12 years, but Dolly was put down at the age of 6 because she had a serious lung disease. At the autopsy, scientists discovered that she had suffered from arthritis as well. Some scientists speculate that her illnesses and early death were related to the fact that she was produced from an adult cell - in a sense, Dolly's DNA was older than she was. However, these questions are still unresolved.

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Bibliography

S Franklin, Dolly Mixtures. The Remaking of Genealogy (Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2007)

Glossary:

Cell

Basic unit of all living organisms, it can reproduce itself exactly.

Arthritis

Inflammation of joints; swelling, pain and decreased mobility are typical symptoms.

Dna

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The material of all living organisms, it stores the information, or blueprints, about every cell and is located in the genes. It is made up of two strands which form a double helix and are linked with hydrogen bonds. It was first described in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson.