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Evidence from ancient DNA

In 1997, biologists Svante Pääbo in Germany and Mark Stoneking in the USA extracted mitochondrial DNA from the arm bone of the Neander Valley skeleton. It was different enough from the mitochondrial DNA of modern day humans to show that Neanderthals were probably not our ancestors, but from a different branch of the human evolutionary tree. The last common ancestor shared by Neanderthals and modern humans in Europe probably lived around 600,000 years ago.

DNA from a Neanderthal skeleton shows that Neanderthals were probably not our ancestors, but from a different branch of the human evolutionary tree.
DNA from a Neanderthal skeleton shows that Neanderthals were probably not our ancestors, but from a different branch of the human evolutionary tree.

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