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Quipu, South American, c 15th century.

Replica of a quipu made from an original held at the Museum of Natural History, New York, in 1974. Quipus were used by the Incas during the 15th and early 16th centuries as records of all types of accounts. It was discovered in the early 20th century

Drawing made with a Spirograph, 1975.

A pattern drawn using a Spirograph, a popular graphic toy used to draw combinations of curves.

Set of mathematical instruments, c 1701.

Set of mathematical instruments made by D Lusuerg of Rome, 1701. The range of this set of instruments is unusually extensive, from ordinary dividers to a geometric quadrant. It also includes a circle of degrees with pointers in the shape of grotesq

Cordingley's computometer, adding machine, c 1900.

Cordingley computometer adding machine c.1900. The Cordingley adding machine was one of several simple devices introduced around 1900. It is based on Blaise Pascal's (1623-1662) design of 250 years earlier.

Adolf Sonnenschein's 'Arithmometer', late 19th century.

A. Sonnenschein's improved Arithmometer' made by George Philip and Son of London and Liverpool, late 19th century. This device, which showed units, rods of 10s, and squares of 100s, anticipated many 20th century arithmetical teaching aids. Sonnensche

'La Multi' calculator, c 1920.

La Multi, prototype of French calculating device based on Napier's bones, seven figures, c. 1920. This is a prototype of an instrument which did not prove successful. Napier's bones, a calculating device invented by John Napier in 1617, allowed the u

School exercise book, 1814.

The maths exercise book comprises hundreds of mathematical problems and calculations in the fields of numeration, trigonometry, navigation, astronomy etc. Includes numerous diagrams and several pen and ink drawings of rigged three-masters. Compiled b

School exercise book, English, 1862.

Mathematical exercise book for Master F. Ashton attending at Mr. Knagg's Classical Mathematical & Commercial Academy at Westow Hall, Kirkham near York, dated Oct. 11th, 1862. Printed by Bean Stationer, Leeds. Small private academies provided most of

Exchequer tally and foil, English, 1822.

An exchequer tally dated 1822. The English Exchequer used tallies to record deposits from the mid-12th century until 1826. Notches show the amount paid; differently spaced notches standing for a penny, a shilling, £1, £20, £100 and £1000.

'Addiator' calculating machine, c 1924.

Addiator' decimal adding machine with stylus and pencil on metal stand. Made by the Addiator-Gesellshaft Company of Berlin, Germany, the 'Addiator' was a relatively late mechanical calculator. It uses a chain mechanism, a stylus to add or subtract an