Typewriters

    The job of the typist has always been dominated by women. The reason for this dates back to the 1880's when typewriters were beginning to appear in the workplace. This new source of employment was one that many men did not want to enter because the wages were low.

    It was in America that the idea of employing women to type was first formed. In 1881 the Young Women’s Christian Association bought six typewriters and began a typing class for eight women. Within five years 60,000 were working throughout the United States.

    As typing classes began to develop, some typewriting manufacturers' including Remington, began to set up their own schools. It was within these schools that the skill of shorthand began to be taught alongside the all-finger touch-typing technique. In some cases companies would train up women and then offer their skills when selling their machines to an office.

    The evolution of women in the office has had impact on the development of women's rights in all areas of professional life. Before the advent of the typist most women were working in shops, factories or domestic service. Only if they had received a high level of education could women improve their prospects by pursuing nursing or teaching. With the development of the typist and typing-pools, women could take up a 'respectable’ job which did not demand such high levels of education.

    The increasing number of women in the workplace cannot just be explained by the development of the typewriter. What the machine did do was establish a role that allowed further opportunities to grow. However, there was also a drawback to the rise of the typist. Many women began to be sterotyped as only able to carry out this level of work and had to struggle to improve their position.

    References

    Adler, M.A. , The Writing Machine: A History of The Typewriter, : George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1973
    Beeching, W. A. , A Century of the Typewriter, : Heinemann, 1974
    Current, R.N. , The typewriter (A history of the Sholes & Gidden), Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1954
    Davies, M.W. , Women’s place is at the typewriter: office work and office workers 1870-1930, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982
    Duncan, J. , Old typewriters, : Shire Publications, 1993
    Mares, G.C., The history of the typewriter, London: Guilbert Pitman, 1909
    Storm, S.H., Beyond the typewriter: gender, class and the origins of modern American office work, 1900-1930, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992
    Tilghman-Richards, G. , The History and Development of Typewriters, London: HMSO, 1964

    Page 5 of 5
    Previous: Page 4 - Typewriters