A single surface model made by Alan Bennett in Bedford, 1995. It consists of a Klein bottle cut to form one single-twist Mobius strip. A Klein bottle is a surface which has no edges, no outside or inside and cannot be properly constructed in three di
A single surface model made by Alan Bennett in Bedford, 1995. It consists of a Klein bottle cut to form one four-twist band. A Klein bottle is a surface which has no edges, no outside or inside and cannot be properly constructed in three dimensions.
Single surface models made by Alan Bennett in Bedford, 1995. Four small Klein bottles (left to right): i) one loop relating to the single-twist Mobius strip, ii) two loop relating to the three-twist Mobius strip, iii) three loops relating to the five
Set of Napier's bones in boxwood, in a boxwood case. John Napier (1550-1617), discoverer of logarithms, also created this popular calculating tool known as Napier's cylindrical 'rods' or 'bones'. Napier's bones reduced muliplication to a sequence of
Brunsviga calculating machine with lid, no262. c.1892. This barrel calculating machine represents the Brunsviga in its earliest form. Barrel calculating machines were smaller, lighter and easier to operate than Arithmometers. The machine performs mu
A single surface model made by Alan Bennett in Bedford, 1995. It consists of a parallel sided coil with one piercing of the return tube which when theoretically cut gives a pair of 15-twist Mobius strips. A Klein bottle has no edges, no outside or in
Stchoty (Russian form of Abacus), early 20th century. The stchety has horizontal rows of beads rather than vertical as in the Japanese abacus. It is specifically for counting rubles and kopeks. The lower three rows are for the kopeks. The rest positi
Robertson's Rapid calculator, pat no. 5871,1910. Made by the Robertson Rapid Calculator Company of Glasgow, this was one of several large-scale ready reckoners to be developed in the first decade of the 20th century. This form of ready reckoner place
Set of Napier's bones, in wooden case with trade label of "J. Imison, Clock & Watch Maker, Optician, &c., No. 58 Hay-market, London", late 18th century. Napier's bones were invented in 1617 by Lord Napier of Murchiston, the inventor of logarithms, as
"Tachylemme" of C.L.Chambon, c.1876. This instrument shows the daily interest on sums of money at various rates.